Polymers and macromolecules

Aug 14, 2016 by in PHARMACY Comments Off on Polymers and macromolecules

Scheme 7.1 The spectrum of uses for polymers in pharmaceutics 7.1.1 Definitions Polymers are substances of high molecular weight made up of repeating monomer units. Substances with short chains containing relatively few…

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Drug stability

Aug 14, 2016 by in PHARMACY Comments Off on Drug stability

Scheme 3.1 Examples of chemical groups susceptible to hydrolysis. Drugs that contain ester linkages include acetylsalicylic acid, physostigmine, methyldopate, tetracaine and procaine. Ester hydrolysis is usually a bimolecular reaction involving acyl-oxygen…

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The solubility of drugs

Aug 14, 2016 by in PHARMACY Comments Off on The solubility of drugs

Figure 4.1 Diagrammatic representation of the three processes involved in the dissolution of a crystalline solute: the expression for the work involved is w22 + w11 − 2w12 (solute–solvent interaction in the last stage is…

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Emulsions, suspensions and related colloidal systems

Aug 14, 2016 by in PHARMACY Comments Off on Emulsions, suspensions and related colloidal systems

Figure 6.1 Photomicrographs of (a) an oil-in-water emulsion and (b) a suspension. Table 6.1 Main types of colloidal systems Type Disperse phase Continuous phase o/w emulsion Oil Water w/o emulsion Water Oil…

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Parenteral routes of drug administration

Aug 14, 2016 by in PHARMACY Comments Off on Parenteral routes of drug administration

Clinical point  IA injection of BCNU (carmustine; bis-chloronitrosourea) in the treatment of malignant glioma results in levels of drug that are four times greater than those following IV infusion, but…

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Physicochemical properties of drugs in solution

Aug 14, 2016 by in PHARMACY Comments Off on Physicochemical properties of drugs in solution

Concentration is often given in grams per litre (g L−1) rather than kilograms per cubic metre (kg m−3). Note also that 1 mg mL−1 is therefore also equal to 1 kg m−3. Molarity is commonly expressed…

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Peptides, proteins and monoclonal antibodies

Aug 14, 2016 by in PHARMACY Comments Off on Peptides, proteins and monoclonal antibodies

1.5 Prostatic carcinoma therapy Somatostatin 3.1 Growth inhibition Calcitonin 3.4 Ca2+ regulation Glucagon 3.5 Diabetes therapy Parathyroid hormone (1–34) 4.3 Ca2+ regulation Insulin 6 Diabetes therapy Parathyroid hormone (1–84) 9.4…

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Physicochemical interactions and incompatibilities

Aug 14, 2016 by in PHARMACY Comments Off on Physicochemical interactions and incompatibilities

Figure 11.1 Solubility curves for total parenteral nutrition solutions containing amino acid (15 g dm–3) and 10% dextrose at pH 5.5. Dotted line: Aminosyn. Solid line: TrophAmine. Dashed lines: relative calcium-to-phosphate ratios. Modified…

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Drug absorption basics and the oral route

Aug 14, 2016 by in PHARMACY Comments Off on Drug absorption basics and the oral route

Figure 8.1 Model of a biological membrane showing the different compositions of the interior and exterior sides. Glycolipids are seen on the outside, while phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol predominate on the cytosolic…

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