BIOCHEMISTRY

Acid-Base Chemistry of Organic Molecules

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CHAPTER OUTLINE   5.1   Introduction   5.2   Three Theories of Acids and Bases   5.3   Self-Ionization of Water and the pH Scale   5.4   Avoiding Confusion—Use of “Acid” and “Base” and Related Terms   5.5   The Acid Dissociation Constant Ka…

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Reactions of Carbonyl Species

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CHAPTER OUTLINE   7.1   Introduction   7.2   Nature of the Carbonyl Group   7.3   Relative Reactivity of Carbonyl-Containing Functional Groups   7.4   Hydration of Aldehydes and Ketones   7.5   Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones with Alcohols           Box 7.1—Glucuronidation in the…

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Nucleophilic Substitution, Addition, and Elimination Reactions

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CHAPTER OUTLINE   6.1   Introduction   6.2   Nucleophiles   6.3   Electrophiles           Box 6.1—Electrophiles in cancer drugs   6.4   Leaving Groups   6.5   Nucleophilic Aliphatic Substitution Reactions—SN2           Box 6.2—SN2 reactions in biological chemistry   6.6   Nucleophilic Aliphatic Substitution Reactions—SN1   6.7   Neighboring Group Assistance in…

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The Nature of Bonding in Organic Molecules

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CHAPTER OUTLINE   1.1   Introduction   1.2   The Nature of Covalent and Ionic Bonds           Box 1.1—Drawing organic molecules   1.3   Polarization of Covalent Bonds   1.4   Atomic Orbitals and Valence Bond Theory   1.5   Hybridization of Orbitals and Tetrahedral Carbon…

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Conformations of Organic Molecules

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CHAPTER OUTLINE   4.1   Introduction   4.2   Newman Projections and Dihedral Angles   4.3   Conformations and Energies of Ethane—Torsional Strain   4.4   Conformations and Energies of Larger Acyclic Molecules—Steric Strain   4.5   Conformations of Small Rings           Box 4.1—The three major…

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Radical Chemistry

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CHAPTER OUTLINE   8.1   Introduction   8.2   Formation, Stability, and Molecular Orbital View of Radicals   8.3   Radical Reactions   8.4   Reactions of Molecular Oxygen   8.5   Iron-Mediated Radical Reactions in Drug Metabolism           Box 8.1—Fenton chemistry in the action of…

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Non-Covalent Interactions

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CHAPTER OUTLINE   2.1   Introduction   2.2   Enthalpic and Entropic Contributions to Ligand/Drug Binding   2.3   The Strength of Non-Covalent Interactions   2.4   Desolvation and the Hydrophobic Effect   2.5   Ionic Interactions           Box 2.1—Ionic interactions in a proton channel from…

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Stereochemistry

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CHAPTER OUTLINE   3.1   Introduction   3.2   Chirality and the Shape of Molecules   3.3   Stereoisomers—Some Important Definitions           Box 3.1—Determining isomeric and stereochemical relationships between molecules   3.4   Avoiding Confusion   3.5   Stereoisomers of 1,3-Dimethylcyclohexane   3.6   Chirality Centers   3.7   Assigning the Configuration…

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