Sterilization procedures and sterility assurance

Jun 20, 2016 by in PHARMACY Comments Off on Sterilization procedures and sterility assurance

1 Introduction Sterilization is anessential stage in the processing of any product destined forparenteral administration, or for contact with broken skin, mucosal surfaces, or internal organs, where the threat of…

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Laboratory evaluation of antimicrobial agents

Jun 20, 2016 by in PHARMACY Comments Off on Laboratory evaluation of antimicrobial agents

1 Introduction Laboratory evaluation of antimicrobial agents remains a cornerstone of clinical microbiology and antimicrobial/ biocide discovery and development. The development of robust and reproducible assays for determining microbial susceptibility…

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Recombinant DNA technology

Jun 20, 2016 by in PHARMACY Comments Off on Recombinant DNA technology

1 Introduction: biotechnology in pharmaceutical sciences The rapid developments in biotechnology and the applications of genetic engineering to practical human problems have allowed the advancement of pharmaceutical biotechnology at a…

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Protozoa

Jun 20, 2016 by in PHARMACY Comments Off on Protozoa

1 Introduction 1.1 Parasitism Parasitism is a specific type of interaction between two organisms that has many features in common with other infectious processes, but host-parasite interactions often operate over…

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Bacteria

Jun 20, 2016 by in PHARMACY Comments Off on Bacteria

1.Introduction The small1est free-living microorganisms are the prokaryotes, comprising bacteria and archaea (see Chapter 2). Prokaryote is a term used to define cells that lack a true nuclear membrane; they…

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Non-antibiotic antimicrobial agents: mode of action and resistance

Jun 20, 2016 by in PHARMACY Comments Off on Non-antibiotic antimicrobial agents: mode of action and resistance

1 Introduction The group of agents which comprises antiseptics, disinfectants, chemical sterilants and preservatives (often collectively called biocides) have frequently been classified as non-specific protoplasmic poisons. Such a broad generalization…

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Viruses

Jun 20, 2016 by in PHARMACY Comments Off on Viruses

1 Introduction Viruses were first discovered at the end of the 19th century, although the symptoms they cause were identified much earlier. One of the earliest pieces of evidence is…

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