β-Lactam antibiotics

Aug 27, 2016 by in GENERAL & FAMILY MEDICINE Comments Off on β-Lactam antibiotics

Key Points The β-lactam class of antibiotics includes penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, and monobactams; many, particularly the newer examples, exhibit a broad spectrum of activity against both Gram negative and Gram…

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Macrolide Antibiotics

Aug 27, 2016 by in GENERAL & FAMILY MEDICINE Comments Off on Macrolide Antibiotics

Key Points Erythromycin, a commonly used macrolide antibiotic, has a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity which is similar to that of the penicillins, and so is frequently the agent of…

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Tetracycline Antibiotics

Aug 27, 2016 by in GENERAL & FAMILY MEDICINE Comments Off on Tetracycline Antibiotics

Key Points Tetracyclines are broad-spectrum agents with excellent bioavailability and activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria; resistance and issues of toxicity restrict their regular clinical use. New…

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Microorganisms

Aug 27, 2016 by in GENERAL & FAMILY MEDICINE Comments Off on Microorganisms

Key Points Bacteria can be classified according to their staining by the Gram stain (Gram positive, Gram negative, and mycobacteria) and their shape. Most bacterial (prokaryotic) cells differ from mammalian…

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Sulfonamide Antibacterial Agents

Aug 27, 2016 by in GENERAL & FAMILY MEDICINE Comments Off on Sulfonamide Antibacterial Agents

Table 3.1.1 Therapeutic indications for the sulfonamide antibiotics. Sulfonamide antibiotic Indications Co-trimoxazole (sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim) Treatment prevention of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia Treatment of toxoplasmosis Treatment of nocardiosis Sulfadiazine Prevention of…

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Aminoglycoside Antibiotics

Aug 27, 2016 by in GENERAL & FAMILY MEDICINE Comments Off on Aminoglycoside Antibiotics

Key Points The aminoglycoside antibiotics are potent bactericidal agents that are rapidly lethal to bacteria in a concentration-dependent manner; their therapeutic potential for widespread use is restricted by ototoxicity and…

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Cycloserine

Aug 27, 2016 by in GENERAL & FAMILY MEDICINE Comments Off on Cycloserine

Key Points D-Cycloserine (DCS) is a natural antibiotic with good oral bioavailability and activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. D-Cycloserine interferes with two enzymes in cell-wall biosynthesis:…

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Glycopeptide Antibiotics

Aug 27, 2016 by in GENERAL & FAMILY MEDICINE Comments Off on Glycopeptide Antibiotics

Key Points Vancomycin is used for the treatment of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. The glycopeptides bind to D-ala-D-ala and form a ‘protective layer’, thus preventing some of the steps…

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Quinolone Antibacterial Agents

Aug 27, 2016 by in GENERAL & FAMILY MEDICINE Comments Off on Quinolone Antibacterial Agents

Key Points The quinolones are synthetic antibacterial agents which show greatest activity against Gram negative bacteria and are used in the treatment of urinary tract and respiratory infections. Resistance to…

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Trimethoprim

Aug 27, 2016 by in GENERAL & FAMILY MEDICINE Comments Off on Trimethoprim

3.2.1 Discovery Trimethoprim (Figure 3.2.1) is an example of early rational drug design; it resulted from the work of George H. Hitchings and his group at Burroughs Wellcome in the…

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