Oncology

May 5, 2017 by in GENERAL SURGERY Comments Off on Oncology

Familial Cancer Syndromes 2 The discovery of inherited mutations of genes associated with an increased risk of cancer provides important opportunities for early detection and prevention of common and rare…

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Lung Neoplasms

May 5, 2017 by in GENERAL SURGERY Comments Off on Lung Neoplasms

Epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation also appear to participate in the tumorigenesis of lung cancer. In particular gene promoter inactivation by hypermethylation may be an important mechanism in the inactivation…

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Crohn Disease

May 5, 2017 by in GENERAL SURGERY Comments Off on Crohn Disease

Figure 50-1. Terminal ileum with forceps pointing to intraloop chronic abscess cavity. Clinical Evaluation Small Bowel The distribution of disease will in large part dictate the clinical presentation. The terminal…

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Anesthesiology and Pain Management

May 5, 2017 by in GENERAL SURGERY Comments Off on Anesthesiology and Pain Management

Muscle Relaxants 2 To prevent movement and to facilitate the surgical exposure, neuromuscular blocking agents are generally used. These drugs are competitive or noncompetitive inhibitors of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine at…

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Preoperative Risk Assessment

May 5, 2017 by in GENERAL SURGERY Comments Off on Preoperative Risk Assessment

Figure 15-1. Variation in surgical mortality. These circumstances influence both institutional and overall health care delivery. The overwhelming health care spending burden adds pressure to provide efficient, high-quality care. Hospital…

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The Spleen

May 5, 2017 by in GENERAL SURGERY Comments Off on The Spleen

The 20th century brought technical advances in terms of hemostasis and blood transfusion as well as an understanding of the pathophysiology of splenic function.4 The spleen was identified as the…

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Cirrhosis and Portal Hypertension

May 5, 2017 by in GENERAL SURGERY Comments Off on Cirrhosis and Portal Hypertension

Figure 59-1. Evolution of cirrhosis. Fibrosis develops in nonregenerative necrotic areas, producing scars. The pattern of nodularity and scars reflects the type of response to injury (e.g., uniform vs. nonuniform…

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Ileus and Bowel Obstruction

May 5, 2017 by in GENERAL SURGERY Comments Off on Ileus and Bowel Obstruction

Figure 49-1. Schematic illustration of different forms of simple mechanical obstruction. Simple obstruction is most often due to adhesion (A), groin hernia (B), or neoplasm (C). The hernia can act…

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Venous Disease

May 5, 2017 by in GENERAL SURGERY Comments Off on Venous Disease

For the diagnosis of superficial vein thrombophlebitis (SVT), duplex ultrasound is also important.13 In a prospective epidemiologic study, including 844 patients with symptomatic SVT, 210 (24.9%) had concomitant DVT at…

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