VI LOWER LIMB

Lower Limb


Adult bones of the left lower limb – A from the front; B from behind


Image



1  Head of femur


2  Greater trochanter


3  Neck of femur


4  Intertrochenteric line


5  Lesser trochanter


6  Shaft of femur


7  Medial condyle of femur


8  Lateral condyle of femur


9  Patella


10  Medial condyle of tibia


11  Lateral condyle of tibia


12  Shaft of tibia


13  Medial malleoulus of tibia


14  Head of fibula


15  Neck of fibula


16  Shaft of fibula


17  Lateral malleoulus of fibula


18  Seven tarsal bones of foot


19  Five (I–V) metatarsal bones of foot


20  Two phalanges of great toe


21  Twelve phalanges of toes


22  Intertrochenteric crest of femur


23  Intercondylar fossa


Coronal section through the left hip joint – from the front


Image



1  Psoas major


2  Iliacus


3  Ilium


4  Gluteus minimus


5  Superior gluteal artery, vein and nerve


6  Gluteus medius


7  Rim of acetabulum


8  Acetabular labrum


9  Capsule of hip joint


10  Zona orbicularis of capsule


11  Iliofemoral ligament


12  Greater trochanter of femur


13  Iliotibial tract


14  Vastus lateralis


15  Shaft of femur


16  Vastus medialis


17  Profunda femoris artery


18  Profunda femoris vein


19  Adductor longus


20  Obturator externus


21  Medial circumflex artery and vein


22  Iliopsoas tendon


23  Obturator internus


24  Ligament of head of femur (ligamentum teres)


25  Articular cartilage


26  Head of femur


27  Neck of femur



The hip joint is:


  The largest joint in the body.


  Formed by the head of the femur and acetabulum of the hip bone.


  A synovial ball and socket joint.


  Capable of flexion, extension, abduction, medial and lateral rotation.


  Supplied by nerve fibres from the femoral, sciatic and obturator nerves.


Left gluteal region with gluteus maximus and medius severed and reflected laterally – from behind


Image



1  Gluteus minimus


2  Gluteus medius


3  Gluteus maximus


4  Piriformis


5  Posterior layer of lumbar fascia overlying erector spinae


6  Sacrum


7  Coccyx


8  Gemellus superior


9  Obturator internus


10  Gemellus inferior


11  Superior gluteal artery, vein and nerve


12  Inferior gluteal artery, vein and nerve


13  Sciatic nerve


14  Greater trochanter of femur


15  Vastus lateralis


16  Quadratus femoris


17  Common fibular part of sciatic nerve


18  Tibial part of sciatic nerve


19  Posterior cutaneous femoral nerve


20  Ischial tuberosity


21  Sacrotuberous ligament


22  Pudendal canal


23  Levator ani


24  Inferior rectal artery, vein and nerve


25  Internal pudendal artery


26  Pudendal nerve


27  External anal sphincter


28  Anal margin


29  Anus


30  Gracilis


31  Adductor magnus


32  Semitendinosus


33  Biceps femoris (long head)


34  Upper part of adductor magnus (adductor minimus)


35  Iliotibial tract


Right gluteal region with removal of the lower outer two-thirds of gluteus maximus – from behind


Image



1  Posterior layer of lumbar fascia overlying erector spinae


2  Gluteus maximus


3  Sacrum


4  Coccyx


5  Anococcygeal body


6  External anal sphincter


7  Anal margin


8  Anus


9  Levator ani


10  Sacrotuberous ligament (cut and reflected inferiorly)


11  Gemellus superior


12  Obturator internus


13  Internal pudendal artery


14  Pudendal nerve


15  Gemellus inferior


16  Inferior rectal artery, vein and nerve


17  Gracilis


18  Adductor magnus


19  Semitendinosus


20  Biceps femoris (long head)


21  Upper part of adductor magnus (adductor minimus)


22  Iliotibial tract


23  Vastus lateralis


24  Quadratus femoris


25  Obturator externus


26  Greater trochanter of femur


27  Gluteus medius


28  Gluteus minimus


29  Piriformis


30  Sciatic nerve


31  Posterior cutaneous femoral nerve


32  Tibial part of sciatic nerve


33  Common fibular part of sciatic nerve


Superficial structures of the left femoral triangle and thigh – from the front


Image



1  Anterior superior iliac spine


2  External oblique aponeurosis


3  Position of inguinal ligament


4  Iliotibial tract


5  Tensor fascia latae


6  Sartorius


7  Iliacus


8  Femoral nerve


9  Femoral artery


10  Femoral vein


11  Femoral canal


12  Pectineus


13  Adductor brevis


14  Adductor longus


15  Gracilis


16  Great saphenous vein


17  Rectus femoris


18  Vastus lateralis


19  Vastus medialis


20  Tendon of quadriceps femoris


21  Patella



The femoral triangle:


  Is bounded by the inguinal ligament, medial border of sartorius and medial border of adductor longus.


  Contains, from the lateral to medial side, the femoral nerve, artery, vein and canal.


The femoral canal:


  Is the most medial compartment of the femoral sheath.


  Is approximately 4 cm in length.


  Opens into the peritoneal cavity by way of the femoral ring, behind the inguinal ligament.


  Allows the passage of lymphatic channels from the lower limb into the pelvis.


  Provides space for the femoral vein to expand thus increasing venous drainage to the lower limb.


The femoral pulse:


  Can be palpated midway between the anterior superior iliac spine and the midline pubic symphysis (the midinguinal point or femoral point).


Superficial structures of the left gluteal region, thigh and popliteal fossa – from behind


Image



1  Gluteus maximus


2  Gracilis


3  Semimembranosus


4  Semitendinosus


5  Long head of biceps femoris


6  Short head of biceps femoris


7  Iliotibial tract


8  Posterior femoral cutaneous nerve


9  Popliteal artery


10  Popliteal vein


11  Tibial nerve


12  Common fibular nerve



The popliteal pulse:


  Requires special technique by the examiner as the poplieal artery is situated deep within the popliteal fossa surrounded by fat and tissue.


  With the knee flexed, both thumbs should be placed on the front of the knee; using both hands the fingers are pressed gently forwards into the middle of the fossa to locate the pulse.


Superficial structures of the left leg – from the front


Image



1  Cut edge of iliotibial tract


2  Vastus lateralis


3  Rectus femoris


4  Vastus medialis


5  Sartorius


6  Gracilis


7  Tendon of quadriceps femoris


8  Patella


9  Patellar ligament


10  Tuberosity of tibia


11  Shaft of tibia


12  Medial head of gastrocnemius


13  Anterior surface of tibia


14  Tibialis anterior


15  Soleus


16  Fibularis longus


17  Superficial fibular nerve


18  Extensor digitorum longus


19  Extensor hallucis longus


20  Extensor retinaculum


21  Great saphenous vein


22  Medial malleollus of tibia


23  Lateral malleolus of fibula


24  Tendon of tibialis anterior



The patella:


  Is the largest sesamoid bone in the body and is situated within the quadriceps tendon.


  Is held at a constant distance from the upper surface of the tibia by the patellar ligament.


  Slides over the femoral condyles as the knee joint bends and never comes in contact with the tibia.

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Jan 22, 2018 | Posted by in ANATOMY | Comments Off on VI LOWER LIMB
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