Lower Limb

Adult bones of the left lower limb – A from the front; B from behind


1  Head of femur

2  Greater trochanter

3  Neck of femur

4  Intertrochenteric line

5  Lesser trochanter

6  Shaft of femur

7  Medial condyle of femur

8  Lateral condyle of femur

9  Patella

10  Medial condyle of tibia

11  Lateral condyle of tibia

12  Shaft of tibia

13  Medial malleoulus of tibia

14  Head of fibula

15  Neck of fibula

16  Shaft of fibula

17  Lateral malleoulus of fibula

18  Seven tarsal bones of foot

19  Five (I–V) metatarsal bones of foot

20  Two phalanges of great toe

21  Twelve phalanges of toes

22  Intertrochenteric crest of femur

23  Intercondylar fossa

Coronal section through the left hip joint – from the front


1  Psoas major

2  Iliacus

3  Ilium

4  Gluteus minimus

5  Superior gluteal artery, vein and nerve

6  Gluteus medius

7  Rim of acetabulum

8  Acetabular labrum

9  Capsule of hip joint

10  Zona orbicularis of capsule

11  Iliofemoral ligament

12  Greater trochanter of femur

13  Iliotibial tract

14  Vastus lateralis

15  Shaft of femur

16  Vastus medialis

17  Profunda femoris artery

18  Profunda femoris vein

19  Adductor longus

20  Obturator externus

21  Medial circumflex artery and vein

22  Iliopsoas tendon

23  Obturator internus

24  Ligament of head of femur (ligamentum teres)

25  Articular cartilage

26  Head of femur

27  Neck of femur

The hip joint is:

  The largest joint in the body.

  Formed by the head of the femur and acetabulum of the hip bone.

  A synovial ball and socket joint.

  Capable of flexion, extension, abduction, medial and lateral rotation.

  Supplied by nerve fibres from the femoral, sciatic and obturator nerves.

Left gluteal region with gluteus maximus and medius severed and reflected laterally – from behind


1  Gluteus minimus

2  Gluteus medius

3  Gluteus maximus

4  Piriformis

5  Posterior layer of lumbar fascia overlying erector spinae

6  Sacrum

7  Coccyx

8  Gemellus superior

9  Obturator internus

10  Gemellus inferior

11  Superior gluteal artery, vein and nerve

12  Inferior gluteal artery, vein and nerve

13  Sciatic nerve

14  Greater trochanter of femur

15  Vastus lateralis

16  Quadratus femoris

17  Common fibular part of sciatic nerve

18  Tibial part of sciatic nerve

19  Posterior cutaneous femoral nerve

20  Ischial tuberosity

21  Sacrotuberous ligament

22  Pudendal canal

23  Levator ani

24  Inferior rectal artery, vein and nerve

25  Internal pudendal artery

26  Pudendal nerve

27  External anal sphincter

28  Anal margin

29  Anus

30  Gracilis

31  Adductor magnus

32  Semitendinosus

33  Biceps femoris (long head)

34  Upper part of adductor magnus (adductor minimus)

35  Iliotibial tract

Right gluteal region with removal of the lower outer two-thirds of gluteus maximus – from behind


1  Posterior layer of lumbar fascia overlying erector spinae

2  Gluteus maximus

3  Sacrum

4  Coccyx

5  Anococcygeal body

6  External anal sphincter

7  Anal margin

8  Anus

9  Levator ani

10  Sacrotuberous ligament (cut and reflected inferiorly)

11  Gemellus superior

12  Obturator internus

13  Internal pudendal artery

14  Pudendal nerve

15  Gemellus inferior

16  Inferior rectal artery, vein and nerve

17  Gracilis

18  Adductor magnus

19  Semitendinosus

20  Biceps femoris (long head)

21  Upper part of adductor magnus (adductor minimus)

22  Iliotibial tract

23  Vastus lateralis

24  Quadratus femoris

25  Obturator externus

26  Greater trochanter of femur

27  Gluteus medius

28  Gluteus minimus

29  Piriformis

30  Sciatic nerve

31  Posterior cutaneous femoral nerve

32  Tibial part of sciatic nerve

33  Common fibular part of sciatic nerve

Superficial structures of the left femoral triangle and thigh – from the front


1  Anterior superior iliac spine

2  External oblique aponeurosis

3  Position of inguinal ligament

4  Iliotibial tract

5  Tensor fascia latae

6  Sartorius

7  Iliacus

8  Femoral nerve

9  Femoral artery

10  Femoral vein

11  Femoral canal

12  Pectineus

13  Adductor brevis

14  Adductor longus

15  Gracilis

16  Great saphenous vein

17  Rectus femoris

18  Vastus lateralis

19  Vastus medialis

20  Tendon of quadriceps femoris

21  Patella

The femoral triangle:

  Is bounded by the inguinal ligament, medial border of sartorius and medial border of adductor longus.

  Contains, from the lateral to medial side, the femoral nerve, artery, vein and canal.

The femoral canal:

  Is the most medial compartment of the femoral sheath.

  Is approximately 4 cm in length.

  Opens into the peritoneal cavity by way of the femoral ring, behind the inguinal ligament.

  Allows the passage of lymphatic channels from the lower limb into the pelvis.

  Provides space for the femoral vein to expand thus increasing venous drainage to the lower limb.

The femoral pulse:

  Can be palpated midway between the anterior superior iliac spine and the midline pubic symphysis (the midinguinal point or femoral point).

Superficial structures of the left gluteal region, thigh and popliteal fossa – from behind


1  Gluteus maximus

2  Gracilis

3  Semimembranosus

4  Semitendinosus

5  Long head of biceps femoris

6  Short head of biceps femoris

7  Iliotibial tract

8  Posterior femoral cutaneous nerve

9  Popliteal artery

10  Popliteal vein

11  Tibial nerve

12  Common fibular nerve

The popliteal pulse:

  Requires special technique by the examiner as the poplieal artery is situated deep within the popliteal fossa surrounded by fat and tissue.

  With the knee flexed, both thumbs should be placed on the front of the knee; using both hands the fingers are pressed gently forwards into the middle of the fossa to locate the pulse.

Superficial structures of the left leg – from the front


1  Cut edge of iliotibial tract

2  Vastus lateralis

3  Rectus femoris

4  Vastus medialis

5  Sartorius

6  Gracilis

7  Tendon of quadriceps femoris

8  Patella

9  Patellar ligament

10  Tuberosity of tibia

11  Shaft of tibia

12  Medial head of gastrocnemius

13  Anterior surface of tibia

14  Tibialis anterior

15  Soleus

16  Fibularis longus

17  Superficial fibular nerve

18  Extensor digitorum longus

19  Extensor hallucis longus

20  Extensor retinaculum

21  Great saphenous vein

22  Medial malleollus of tibia

23  Lateral malleolus of fibula

24  Tendon of tibialis anterior

The patella:

  Is the largest sesamoid bone in the body and is situated within the quadriceps tendon.

  Is held at a constant distance from the upper surface of the tibia by the patellar ligament.

  Slides over the femoral condyles as the knee joint bends and never comes in contact with the tibia.

Only gold members can continue reading. Log In or Register to continue

Jan 22, 2018 | Posted by in ANATOMY | Comments Off on VI LOWER LIMB
Premium Wordpress Themes by UFO Themes
%d bloggers like this: