IV THORAX

Thorax


Adult right first (I) atypical rib – A from above; B from below


Image



1  Head


2  Neck


3  Tubercle


4  Shaft


5  Groove for subclavian artery


6  Scalene tubercle


7  Groove for subclavian vein


8  Anterior end



The first (I) rib:


  Is an atypical rib.


  Is the most curved, flattest and shortest of all the ribs.


  Articulates with only one vertebra, at its own level, the first (TI) thoracic vertebra.


Other atypical ribs are:


  The second (II), tenth (X), eleventh (XI) and twelfth (XII).


Adult right typical rib – A from above; B from below


Image



1  Head


2  Neck


3  Tubercle


4  Angle


5  Shaft


6  Anterior end


7  Articular facet of head


8  Articular facet of tubercle


9  Costal groove



The seven typical ribs are the third to ninth (III–IX):


  Have a head with two facets and a tubercle that has both articular and non-articular parts; the facets and tubercle are situated each end of the ribs neck and articulate with the body of two separate vertebra, one at the rib’s own level and the one above.


  For example, the fifth (V) rib articulates with the body of the fifth (TV) thoracic vertebra and also the body of the one above, the fourth (TIV) thoracic vertebra.


Adult skeleton of the thorax – from the front


Image



1  Seventh (CVII) cervical vertebra – vertebra prominens


2  Suprasternal notch


3  Sternoclavicular joint


4  Body of clavicle


5  Acromioclavicular joint


6  Scapula


7  Shoulder joint


8  Head of humerus


9  Surgical neck of humerus


10  Shaft of humerus


11  Manubrium of sternum


12  Manubriosternal joint


13  Body of sternum


14  Xiphisternal joint


15  Xiphoid process of sternum


16  First (I) rib


17  Second (II) rib


18  Third (III) rib


19  Fourth (IV) rib


20  Fifth (V) rib


21  Sixth (VI) rib


22  Seventh (VII) rib


23  Eighth (VIII) rib


24  Ninth (IX) rib


25  Tenth (X) rib


26  Eleventh (XI) rib


27  Twelfth (XII) rib


28  First costal cartilage


29  Second costal cartilage


30  Third costal cartilage


31  Fourth costal cartilage


32  Fifth costal cartilage


33  Sixth costal cartilage


34  Seventh costal cartilage


35  Twelfth (TXII) thoracic vertebra


36  First (LI) lumbar vertebra


37  Costochondral junction



The ribs are defined as:


  The seven true ribs, the first to seventh (I–VII): are joined to the sternum by their costal cartilages.


  The five false ribs, the eighth to twelfth (VIII–XII): are joined by their cartilages to the cartilage above.


  The two floating ribs, eleventh and twelfth (XI, XII): are short and are not joined to others.


Muscles of the external thoracic wall – from the front


Image



1  Sternohyoid


2  Sternothyroid


3  Sternal head of sternocleidomastoid


4  Clavicular head of sternocleidomastoid


5  Capsule of sternoclavicular joint


6  Body of clavicle


7  Cephalic vein in deltopectoral groove


8  Deltoid


9  Clavicular part of pectoralis major


10  Sternocostal part of pectoralis major


11  Suprasternal notch


12  Manubrium of sternum


13  Body of sternum


14  Xiphoid process of sternum


15  Approximate position of heart (outlined)


16  Serratus anterior


17  External oblique


18  Rectus sheath


19  Linea alba


20  Tendinous intersection of rectus abdominis


21  Rectus abdominis


22  Fourth (IV) rib


23  Third (III) rib


24  Second (II) rib


25  First (I) rib


26  External intercostals


27  Pectoralis minor


Superficial structures of the female breast and external thoracic wall – from the front and left


Image



1  Fascia overlying body of clavicle


2  Supraclavicular nerves


3  Fascia overlying pectoralis major


4  Branches of lateral thoracic artery


5  Fat of breast


6  Areola of breast


7  Nipple of breast


8  External oblique


9  Serratus anterior


10  Latissimus dorsi


11  Cutaneous branches of intercostal nerves



The female breast:


  Is situated in the subcutaneous tissue of the anterior thoracic wall.


  Mainly comprises variable amounts of fat, which provides the bulk of the breasts volume; within the fat is a framework of fibrous tissue and ducts.


  Main part of the breast overlays pectoralis major.


  Base of the breast, which is constant in position, extends from near the midline to the midaxillary line, and from the second (II) to the sixth (VI) rib.


  Main blood supply to the breast is from the internal thoracic artery and adjacent intercostal vessels.


  Lactiferous ducts, about


15 in number, communicate with and open at the nipple.


Sagittal section through the left female breast – from the left


Image



1  Fascia overlying pectoralis major


2  Pectoralis major


3  Fat of breast


4  Condensed glandular tissue


5  Fibrous septum (suspensory ligaments)


6  Retromammary space


7  Lactiferous duct


8  Nipple of breast


9  Areola of breast


10  Skin and subcutaneous tissue of breast



Lymphatic drainage of the breast:


  Is mostly to the axillary group of lymph nodes (which may be palpable).


  Can also pass through drainage channels that pass through the chest wall to the parasternal group of lymph nodes (which are not palpable), situated within the thorax beside the internal thoracic vessels.


Thorax with ribcage and thoracic viscera in situ from the front


Image



1  Body of clavicle


2  Capsule of sternoclavicular joint


3  Suprasternal notch


4  Manubrium of sternum


5  Manubriosternal joint


6  Body of sternum


7  Xiphoid process of sternum


8  First (I) rib


9  Second (II) rib


10  Third (III) rib


11  Fourth (IV) rib


12  Fifth (IV) rib


13  Sixth (VI) rib


14  Seventh (VII) rib


15  First costal cartilage


16  Second costal cartilage


17  Third costal cartilage


18  Fourth costal cartilage


19  Fifth costal cartilage


20  Sixth costal cartilage


21  Seventh costal cartilage


22  Superior lobe of right lung


23  Transverse fissure of right lung


24  Middle lobe of right lung


25  Inferior lobe of right lung


26  Subclavian artery


27  Axillary artery


28  Brachial plexus


29  Axillary vein


30  Internal thoracic artery and vein


31  Costochondral junction


32  Superior lobe of left lung


33  Oblique fissure of left lung


34  Superior surface of left dome of diaphragm


35  Central tendon of diaphragm


Thorax with ribcage removed and thoracic viscera in situ from the front


Image



1  First (I) rib


2  Second (II) rib


3  Third (III) rib


4  Fourth (IV) rib


5  Fifth (V) rib


6  Sixth (VI) rib


7  Seventh (VII) rib


8  Eight (VIII) rib


9  Ninth (IX) rib


10  Ninth costal cartilage


11  Tenth costal cartilage


12  Superior lobe


13  Transverse fissure of right lung


14  Oblique fissure of right lung


15  Inferior lobe of right lung


16  Superior surface of right dome of diaphragm


17  Central tendon of diaphragm


18  Superior surface of left dome of diaphragm


19  Rectus abdominis


20  Linea alba


21  Superior lobe of left lung


22  Oblique fissure of left lung


23  Inferior lobe of left lung


24  Pericardium (pericardial sac)


25  Internal thoracic artery and vein


26  Arch of aorta


27  Left brachiocephalic vein


28  Right brachiocephalic vein


29  Right internal jugular vein


30  Brachiocephalic trunk


31  Trachea


32  Right lobe of thyroid gland


33  Laryngeal prominence of thyroid cartilage


34  Left common carotid artery


35  Left internal jugular vein


36  Subclavian vein


37  Axillary vein


38  Axillary artery


39  Long head of biceps


40  Deltoid


41  Body of clavicle


Right lung, lateral aspect – from the right


Image



1  Apex


2  Superior lobe


3  Middle lobe


4  Inferior lobe


5  Oblique fissure


6  Transverse fissure



Bronchopulmonary segments of the three lobes of the right lung are:


  Superior lobe:


Apical segment (SI)


Posterior segment (SII)


Anterior segment (SIII)


  Middle lobe:


Lateral segment (SIV)


Medial segment (SV)


  Inferior lobe:


Apical (superior) (SVI)


Medial basal (SVII)


Anterior basal (SVIII)


Lateral basal (SIX)


Posterior basal (SX)

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Jan 22, 2018 | Posted by in ANATOMY | Comments Off on IV THORAX
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