Adult right first (I) atypical rib – A from above; B from below


1  Head

2  Neck

3  Tubercle

4  Shaft

5  Groove for subclavian artery

6  Scalene tubercle

7  Groove for subclavian vein

8  Anterior end

The first (I) rib:

  Is an atypical rib.

  Is the most curved, flattest and shortest of all the ribs.

  Articulates with only one vertebra, at its own level, the first (TI) thoracic vertebra.

Other atypical ribs are:

  The second (II), tenth (X), eleventh (XI) and twelfth (XII).

Adult right typical rib – A from above; B from below


1  Head

2  Neck

3  Tubercle

4  Angle

5  Shaft

6  Anterior end

7  Articular facet of head

8  Articular facet of tubercle

9  Costal groove

The seven typical ribs are the third to ninth (III–IX):

  Have a head with two facets and a tubercle that has both articular and non-articular parts; the facets and tubercle are situated each end of the ribs neck and articulate with the body of two separate vertebra, one at the rib’s own level and the one above.

  For example, the fifth (V) rib articulates with the body of the fifth (TV) thoracic vertebra and also the body of the one above, the fourth (TIV) thoracic vertebra.

Adult skeleton of the thorax – from the front


1  Seventh (CVII) cervical vertebra – vertebra prominens

2  Suprasternal notch

3  Sternoclavicular joint

4  Body of clavicle

5  Acromioclavicular joint

6  Scapula

7  Shoulder joint

8  Head of humerus

9  Surgical neck of humerus

10  Shaft of humerus

11  Manubrium of sternum

12  Manubriosternal joint

13  Body of sternum

14  Xiphisternal joint

15  Xiphoid process of sternum

16  First (I) rib

17  Second (II) rib

18  Third (III) rib

19  Fourth (IV) rib

20  Fifth (V) rib

21  Sixth (VI) rib

22  Seventh (VII) rib

23  Eighth (VIII) rib

24  Ninth (IX) rib

25  Tenth (X) rib

26  Eleventh (XI) rib

27  Twelfth (XII) rib

28  First costal cartilage

29  Second costal cartilage

30  Third costal cartilage

31  Fourth costal cartilage

32  Fifth costal cartilage

33  Sixth costal cartilage

34  Seventh costal cartilage

35  Twelfth (TXII) thoracic vertebra

36  First (LI) lumbar vertebra

37  Costochondral junction

The ribs are defined as:

  The seven true ribs, the first to seventh (I–VII): are joined to the sternum by their costal cartilages.

  The five false ribs, the eighth to twelfth (VIII–XII): are joined by their cartilages to the cartilage above.

  The two floating ribs, eleventh and twelfth (XI, XII): are short and are not joined to others.

Muscles of the external thoracic wall – from the front


1  Sternohyoid

2  Sternothyroid

3  Sternal head of sternocleidomastoid

4  Clavicular head of sternocleidomastoid

5  Capsule of sternoclavicular joint

6  Body of clavicle

7  Cephalic vein in deltopectoral groove

8  Deltoid

9  Clavicular part of pectoralis major

10  Sternocostal part of pectoralis major

11  Suprasternal notch

12  Manubrium of sternum

13  Body of sternum

14  Xiphoid process of sternum

15  Approximate position of heart (outlined)

16  Serratus anterior

17  External oblique

18  Rectus sheath

19  Linea alba

20  Tendinous intersection of rectus abdominis

21  Rectus abdominis

22  Fourth (IV) rib

23  Third (III) rib

24  Second (II) rib

25  First (I) rib

26  External intercostals

27  Pectoralis minor

Superficial structures of the female breast and external thoracic wall – from the front and left


1  Fascia overlying body of clavicle

2  Supraclavicular nerves

3  Fascia overlying pectoralis major

4  Branches of lateral thoracic artery

5  Fat of breast

6  Areola of breast

7  Nipple of breast

8  External oblique

9  Serratus anterior

10  Latissimus dorsi

11  Cutaneous branches of intercostal nerves

The female breast:

  Is situated in the subcutaneous tissue of the anterior thoracic wall.

  Mainly comprises variable amounts of fat, which provides the bulk of the breasts volume; within the fat is a framework of fibrous tissue and ducts.

  Main part of the breast overlays pectoralis major.

  Base of the breast, which is constant in position, extends from near the midline to the midaxillary line, and from the second (II) to the sixth (VI) rib.

  Main blood supply to the breast is from the internal thoracic artery and adjacent intercostal vessels.

  Lactiferous ducts, about

15 in number, communicate with and open at the nipple.

Sagittal section through the left female breast – from the left


1  Fascia overlying pectoralis major

2  Pectoralis major

3  Fat of breast

4  Condensed glandular tissue

5  Fibrous septum (suspensory ligaments)

6  Retromammary space

7  Lactiferous duct

8  Nipple of breast

9  Areola of breast

10  Skin and subcutaneous tissue of breast

Lymphatic drainage of the breast:

  Is mostly to the axillary group of lymph nodes (which may be palpable).

  Can also pass through drainage channels that pass through the chest wall to the parasternal group of lymph nodes (which are not palpable), situated within the thorax beside the internal thoracic vessels.

Thorax with ribcage and thoracic viscera in situ from the front


1  Body of clavicle

2  Capsule of sternoclavicular joint

3  Suprasternal notch

4  Manubrium of sternum

5  Manubriosternal joint

6  Body of sternum

7  Xiphoid process of sternum

8  First (I) rib

9  Second (II) rib

10  Third (III) rib

11  Fourth (IV) rib

12  Fifth (IV) rib

13  Sixth (VI) rib

14  Seventh (VII) rib

15  First costal cartilage

16  Second costal cartilage

17  Third costal cartilage

18  Fourth costal cartilage

19  Fifth costal cartilage

20  Sixth costal cartilage

21  Seventh costal cartilage

22  Superior lobe of right lung

23  Transverse fissure of right lung

24  Middle lobe of right lung

25  Inferior lobe of right lung

26  Subclavian artery

27  Axillary artery

28  Brachial plexus

29  Axillary vein

30  Internal thoracic artery and vein

31  Costochondral junction

32  Superior lobe of left lung

33  Oblique fissure of left lung

34  Superior surface of left dome of diaphragm

35  Central tendon of diaphragm

Thorax with ribcage removed and thoracic viscera in situ from the front


1  First (I) rib

2  Second (II) rib

3  Third (III) rib

4  Fourth (IV) rib

5  Fifth (V) rib

6  Sixth (VI) rib

7  Seventh (VII) rib

8  Eight (VIII) rib

9  Ninth (IX) rib

10  Ninth costal cartilage

11  Tenth costal cartilage

12  Superior lobe

13  Transverse fissure of right lung

14  Oblique fissure of right lung

15  Inferior lobe of right lung

16  Superior surface of right dome of diaphragm

17  Central tendon of diaphragm

18  Superior surface of left dome of diaphragm

19  Rectus abdominis

20  Linea alba

21  Superior lobe of left lung

22  Oblique fissure of left lung

23  Inferior lobe of left lung

24  Pericardium (pericardial sac)

25  Internal thoracic artery and vein

26  Arch of aorta

27  Left brachiocephalic vein

28  Right brachiocephalic vein

29  Right internal jugular vein

30  Brachiocephalic trunk

31  Trachea

32  Right lobe of thyroid gland

33  Laryngeal prominence of thyroid cartilage

34  Left common carotid artery

35  Left internal jugular vein

36  Subclavian vein

37  Axillary vein

38  Axillary artery

39  Long head of biceps

40  Deltoid

41  Body of clavicle

Right lung, lateral aspect – from the right


1  Apex

2  Superior lobe

3  Middle lobe

4  Inferior lobe

5  Oblique fissure

6  Transverse fissure

Bronchopulmonary segments of the three lobes of the right lung are:

  Superior lobe:

Apical segment (SI)

Posterior segment (SII)

Anterior segment (SIII)

  Middle lobe:

Lateral segment (SIV)

Medial segment (SV)

  Inferior lobe:

Apical (superior) (SVI)

Medial basal (SVII)

Anterior basal (SVIII)

Lateral basal (SIX)

Posterior basal (SX)

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Jan 22, 2018 | Posted by in ANATOMY | Comments Off on IV THORAX
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