II VERTEBRAL COLUMN, SPINAL CORD, SKELETON AND TRUNK

Vertebral Column, Spinal Cord, Skeleton and Trunk


Adult skeleton of the vertebral column – from the left


Image



Cervical vertebra


1  First (CI) – atlas


2  Second (CII) – axis


3  Third (CIII)


4  Fourth (CIV)


5  Fifth (CV)


6  Sixth (CVI)


7  Seventh (CVII) – vertebra prominens


Thoracic vertebra


1  First (TI)


2  Second (TII)


3  Third (TIII)


4  Fourth (TIV)


5  Fifth (TV)


6  Sixth (TVI)


7  Seventh (TVII)


8  Eighth (TVIII)


9  Ninth (TIX)


10  Tenth (TX)


11  Eleventh (TXI)


12  Twelfth (TXII)


Lumbar vertebra


1  First (LI)


2  Second (LII)


3  Third (LIII)


4  Fourth (LIV)


5  Fifth (LV)


Sacrum 1–5


Normally formed from the fusion of five sacral vertebra (sacral vertebrae I–V).


Coccyx 1–4


Normally formed by fusion of four rudimentary vertebra (but variable three to five) (coccygeal vertebrae I–IV).


Adult skeleton, with long bones of the left upper and lower limb removed – from the left


Image



1  Nasal bone


2  Frontal bone


3  Parietal bone


4  Sphenoid


5  Temporal bone


6  Occipital bone


7  Zygomatic bone


8  Maxilla


9  Mandible


10  First (CI) cervical vertebra – atlas


11  Second (CII) cervical vertebra – axis


12  Seventh (CVII) cervical vertebra – vertebra prominens


13  First (TI) thoracic vertebra


14  Spine of scapula


15  Medial border of scapula


16  Lateral border of scapula


17  Glenoid cavity of scapula


18  Acromion of scapula


19  Acromial end of clavicle


20  Manubrium of sternum


21  Manubriosternal joint


22  Body of sternum


23  First (I) rib


24  Second (II) rib


25  Third (III) rib


26  Fourth (IV) rib


27  Fifth (V) rib


28  Sixth (VI) rib


29  Seventh (VII) rib


30  Eighth (VIII) rib


31  Ninth (IX) rib


32  Tenth (X) rib


33  Eleventh (XI) rib


34  Twelfth (XII) rib


35  Second (LII) lumbar vertebra


36  Fourth (LIV) lumbar vertebra


37  Fifth (LV) lumbar vertebra


38  Hip bone


39  Iliac crest


40  Posterior inferior iliac spine


41  Greater sciatic notch


42  Sacrum


43  Anterior superior iliac spine


44  Acetabulum


45  Pubic tubercle


46  Body of pubis


47  Obturator foramen


48  Ischial tuberosity


49  Shaft of right femur


A Adult first (CI) cervical vertebra – atlas – from above


B Adult second (CII) cervical vertebra – axis – from above


C Adult fifth (CV) cervical vertebra – from above


Image



1  Vertebral foramen


2  Facet for dens of axis


3  Anterior tubercle


4  Posterior tubercle


5  Posterior arch


6  Groove for vertebral artery


7  Lateral mass with superior articular facet


8  Foramen transversarium


9  Transverse process


10  Anterior arch


11  Bifid spinous process


12  Lamina


13  Superior articular process


14  Apex of dens


15  Anterior articular surface of dens


16  Posterior articular surface of dens


17  Uncus (posterolateral lip) of body


18  Body


19  Groove for spinal nerve (ventral ramus)


20  Pedicle



The foramen transversarium:


  Is present in the transverse processes of all seven cervical vertebrae, a feature that distinguishes them from the rest of the vertebrae forming the vertebral column.


  The foramen accommodates the vertebral artery, which enters the sixth vertebra, ascends through the remaining five to loop into the foramen magnum.


The typical cervical vertebrae:


  Are deemed the third to the sixth; the first (CI) (atlas), second (CII) (axis) and seventh (CVII) (vertebra prominens) differ, having certain distinct features.


A Adult first (TI) thoracic vertebra – from above


B Adult fourth (LIV) lumbar vertebra – from above


Image



1  Vertebral foramen


2  Body


3  Posterolateral lip (uncus)


4  Pedicle


5  Superior articular process


6  Transverse process with costal facet


7  Lamina


8  Spinous process


9  Transverse process


10  Mamillary process



The typical thoracic vertebrae:


  Are the second to the ninth having characteristic features of upper and lower articular facets on the sides of their bodies, which join the heads of the ribs, and an articular facet on the front of each transverse process, which joins a rib tubercle.


  They also have, a round vertebral foramen, spinous process that points downwards and backwards, and superior articular processes that are vertical, flat and face backwards and laterally.


The lumbar vertebrae:


  Have large sized bodies, no costal facets on their bodies and transverse processes, and a distinct triangular-shaped vertebral foramen.

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Jan 22, 2018 | Posted by in ANATOMY | Comments Off on II VERTEBRAL COLUMN, SPINAL CORD, SKELETON AND TRUNK
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