Head, Neck, Brain and Upper Spinal Cord

Skull of full-term fetus – A from the front; B from above


1  Right parietal bone

2  Left parietal bone

3  Anterior fontanelle

4  Parietal tuberosity

5  Right frontal bone

6  Left frontal bone

7  Frontal tuberosity

8  Frontal (metopic) suture

9  Coronal suture

10  Supra-orbital margin

11  Infra-orbital margin

12  Right maxilla

13  Left maxilla

14  Right nasal aperture

15  Left nasal bone

16  Anterior nasal aperture

17  Nasal septum

18  Ramus of mandible

19  Body of mandible

20  Symphysis menti

21  Sagittal suture

22  Posterior fontanelle

23  Lambdoid suture

24  Occipital bone

Skull of full-term fetus – C from the left


1  Left frontal bone

2  Frontal tuberosity

3  Coronal suture

4  Parietal bone

5  Parietal tuberosity

6  Lambdoid suture

7  Occipital bone

8  Mastoid fontanelle

9  Petrous part of temporal bone

10  Stylomastoid foramen

11  Tympanic ring

12  Squamous part of temporal bone

13  Condylar process of mandible

14  Ramus of mandible

15  Body of mandible

16  Maxilla

17  Septal cartilage

18  Nasal bone

19  Zygomatic bone

20  Greater wing of sphenoid

21  Sphenoidal fontanelle

Normal postnatal closure of the six fontanelles:

  Sphenoidal (anterolateral) fontanelle (left and right) – 3 months

  Posterior (median) fontanelle – 3 months

  Mastoid (posterolateral) fontanelle (left and right) – 12 months

  Anterior (median) fontanelle – 18 months

Adult skull – from the right


1  Supra-orbital foramen

2  Nasion

3  Nasal bone

4  Frontal process of maxilla

5  Lacrimal bone

6  Anterior lacrimal crest

7  Posterior lacrimal crest

8  Fossa for lacrimal sac

9  Orbital part of ethmoid bone

10  Orbital surface of maxilla

11  Zygomatic bone

12  Infra-orbital foramen

13  Anterior nasal spine

14  Maxilla

15  Mental protuberance of mandible

16  Mental foramen of mandible

17  Body of mandible

18  Ramus of mandible of mandible

19  Condylar process of mandible

20  Coronoid process of mandible

21  Zygomatic process of temporal bone

22  Greater wing of sphenoid

23  Sphenosquamosal suture

24  Sphenofrontal suture

25  Squamosal suture

26  Squamous part of temporal bone

27  External acoustic meatus

28  Tympanic part of temporal bone

29  Mastoid process of temporal bone

30  Occipitomastoid suture

31  Parietomastoid suture

32  External occipital protuberance

33  Lambdoid suture

34  Occipital bone

35  Parietal bone

36  Coronal suture

37  Superior temporal line

38  Inferior temporal line

39  Frontal bone

40  Circled – position of pterion

41  Frontozygomatic suture

Adult skull with individual bones coloured – from the left


1  Mandible

2  Maxilla

3  Zygomatic bone

4  Ethmoid bone

5  Lacrimal bone

6  Nasal bone

7  Frontal bone

8  Parietal bone

9  Occipital bone

10  Temporal bone

11  Sphenoid

12  Nasomaxillary suture

13  Coronal suture

14  Sphenofrontal suture

15  Sphenosquamosal suture

16  Squamosal suture

17  Lambdoid suture

18  Parietomastoid suture

19  Occipitomastoid suture

20  Temporozygomatic suture

21  Frontozygomatic suture

22  Circled – position of pterion

Normal postnatal closure of the cranial sutures:

  Generally the sutures narrow by 6 months and then begin to interlock within the first year.

  They assume the adult typical serrated (meandering line) appearance by 2 years of age.

  Sutures fuse in the second decade and complete their ossification in the third decade.

  It is not uncommon for the two halves of the fetal frontal bone to fail to fuse resulting in a persistent frontal (metopic) suture.

Adult skull, median sagittal section hence removal of midline structures forming the nasal septum – from the left


1  Ramus of mandible

2  Mandibular foramen

3  Lingula of mandible

4  Angle of mandible

5  Body of mandible

6  Mylohyoid line of mandible

7  Anterior nasal spine of maxilla

8  Nasal crest of maxilla

9  Hard palate

10  Nasal crest of palatine bone

11  Inferior meatus

12  Conchal crest

13  Middle meatus

14  Ethmoidal crest

15  Frontal process of maxilla

16  Nasal bone

17  Frontal sinus

18  Ethmoidal air cells

19  Maxillary sinus

20  Medial pterygoid plate of sphenoid

21  Sphenoidal sinus

22  Clivus

23  Anterior margin of foramen magnum

24  Hypoglossal canal

25  Mastoid process

26  Posterior margin of foramen magnum

27  Jugular foramen

28  Groove for inferior petrosal sinus

29  Internal acoustic meatus

30  Groove for sigmoid sinus

31  Groove for transverse sinus

32  External occipital protuberance

33  Internal occipital protuberance

34  Occiput

35  Occipital bone

36  Lambdoid suture

37  Parietal bone

38  Squamosal suture

39  Squamous part of temporal bone

40  Dorsum sellae

41  Sella turcica

42  Groove for middle meningeal vessels

43  Squamous part of frontal bone

44  Orbital part of frontal bone

Adult skull, median sagittal section with removal of the nasal septum and individual bones coloured – from the right


1  Ethmoid bone

2  Nasal bone

3  Inferior nasal concha

4  Maxilla

5  Palatine bone

6  Mandible

7  Sphenoid

8  Temporal bone

9  Occipital bone

10  Parietal bone

11  Frontal bone

12  Groove for middle meningeal vessels

13  Coronal suture

14  Squamosal suture

15  Parietomastoid suture

16  Lambdoid suture

17  Occipitomastoid suture

The nasal conchae:

  The superior and inferior nasal concha are integral parts of the ethmoid bone.

  The inferior nasal concha is an entirely separate bone that is attached by its anterior and posterior ends to the maxilla and palatine bone, respectively

Cranial vault coverings – from above


1  Skin and dense subcutaneous tissue

2  Epicranial aponeurosis

3  Frontal belly of occipitofrontalis

4  Occipital belly of occipitofrontalis

5  Loose connective tissue and pericranium

6  Bones of cranial vault

7  Dura mater

8  Arachnoid mater

9  Cerebral hemisphere covered by pia mater

The scalp consists of five distinct layers:


  Dense subcutaneous tissue.

  Epicranial aponeurosis and the two bellies of the occipitofrontalis muscle.

  Loose connective tissue.

  Pericranium (periosteum of cranial vault).

The cranial vault:

  Is formed by the union of the frontal, occipital and two parietal bones.

The meninges:

  Comprise the three connective tissue membranes that line both the cranial cavity and vertebral canal to enclose both the brain and spinal cord.

  The dura mater is the outermost and by far the thickest of the meninges. It has a cerebral part that lines the cranium and has an outer endosteal layer and an inner meningeal layer; although the two layers adhere tightly together with one another, in certain areas they separate to form distinct cavities, the venous sinuses; and a spinal part, continuous with the cerebral part, forms a tubular sheath within the length of the vertebral column.

  The arachnoid mater lies inside the dura mater, separated from it by the subdural space.

  The pia mater is the thinnest of all the membranes and it adheres tightly to the surface of both the brain and spinal cord.

Brain, with arachnoid mater and underlying blood vessels removed from the right hemisphere – from above


1  Occipital pole

2  Parieto-occipital sulcus

3  Arachnoid granulations

4  Superior cerebral veins

5  Frontal pole

6  Longitudinal cerebral fissure

7  Superior frontal sulcus

8  Middle frontal gyrus

9  Precentral gyrus

10  Central sulcus

11  Postcentral gyrus

12  Postcentral sulcus

The cerebral cortex:

  Is formed into smooth, broad, convoluted folds that are termed gyri (singular gyrus).

  The spaces between the gyri are termed sulci (singular sulcus).

Brain, with arachnoid mater covering intact – from the left


1  Artery of central sulcus

2  Superior anastomotic vein

3  Superior cerebral veins

4  Lateral sulcus

5  Inferior anastomotic vein

6  Inferior cerebral veins

7  Superior cerebral artery

8  Basilar artery

9  Vertebral artery

10  Frontal pole

11  Occipital pole

12  Temporal pole

13  Cerebral hemisphere

The cerebellar cortex:

  Consists of multiple folds, much finer in structure than that of the cerebrum, termed folia and are not individually named.

Brain, with arachnoid mater and underlying blood vessels removed – from the left


1  Central sulcus

2  Precentral gyrus

3  Postcentral gyrus

4  Precentral sulcus

5  Inferior frontal sulcus

6  Superior frontal sulcus

7  Inferior frontal gyrus

8  Orbital gyri

9  Postcentral sulcus

10  Lateral sulcus

11  Superior temporal gyrus

12  Superior temporal sulcus

13  Middle temporal gyrus

14  Inferior temporal sulcus

15  Inferior temporal gyrus

16  Parieto-occipital sulcus

17  Lunate sulcus

18  Anterior occipital sulcus

19  Pons

20  Flocculus

21  Cerebellar hemisphere

22  Medulla oblongata

23  Frontal pole

24  Temporal pole

25  Occipital pole

26  Frontal lobe

27  Parietal lobe

28  Occipital lobe

29  Temporal lobe

Brain, median sagittal section, with arachnoid covering intact – from the right


1  Left vertebral artery

2  Anterior inferior cerebellar artery

3  Basilar artery

4  Anterior cerebellar artery

5  Medial frontobasal artery

6  Callosomarginal artery

7  Pericallosal artery

8  Anteromedial frontal artery

9  Intermediomedial frontal artery

10  Posteromedial frontal artery

11  Paracentral artery

12  Precuneal artery

13  Parieto-occipital branch of posterior cerebral artery

14  Calcarine branch of posterior cerebral artery

15  Cerebellar hemisphere

16  Anterior lobe of cerebellum

17  Fourth ventricle

18  Pons

19  Mamillary body

20  Optic nerve (II)

21  Body of fornix

22  Genu of corpus callosum

23  Body of corpus callosum

24  Splenium of corpus callosum

25  Pineal body

The brain consists of the:




The brainstem consists of:



  Medulla oblongata.

The cerebrum has two cerebral hemispheres each with a:

  Frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, insula (insular lobe) and limbic lobe.

The midbrain consists of:

  The two cerebral peduncles.

Brain, median sagittal section, with arachnoid and underlying blood vessels removed – from the right


1  Superior frontal gyrus

2  Cingulate sulcus

3  Cingulate gyrus

4  Corpus callosal sulcus

5  Body of corpus callosum

6  Genu of corpus callosum

7  Splenium of corpus callosum

8  Body of fornix

9  Caudate nucleus (head) in wall of lateral ventricle

10  Third ventricle

11  Foramen of habenular commisure

12  Thalamus

13  Massa intermedia (interthalmic adhesion)

14  Anterior commisure

15  Pineal body

16  Posterior commisure

17  Superior calliculus

18  Aqueduct of midbrain

19  Inferior calliculus

20  Mesencephalon

21  Hypothalamus

22  Mamillary body

23  Infundibulum

24  Uncus

25  Optic nerve (II)

26  Oculomotor nerve (III)

27  Trochlear nerve (IV)

28  Parahippocampal gyrus

29  Rhinal sulcus

30  Pons

31  Midbrain

32  Pontine tegmentum

33  Fourth ventricle

34  Nodulus

35  Anterior lobe of cerebellum

36  Parieto-occipital fissure

37  Calcarine sulcus

38  Cerebellar hemisphere

39  Tonsil of cerebellum

40  Inferior cerebellar peduncle

41  Pyramid of medulla oblongata

42  Medulla oblongata

Dura mater and meningeal vessels – from the left


1  Skin and dense subcutaneous tissue of scalp

2  Bones of cranial vault

3  Dura mater

4  Anterior branch of middle meningeal artery

5  Posterior branch of middle meningeal artery

6  Position of pterion (circled)

The pterion:

  Is an area identifiable by a distinct ‘H’-shaped arrangement of cranial bone sutures formed by the union of the frontal bone, parietal bone, squamous part of the temporal bone and greater wing of the sphenoid.

  It is a very important landmark because it immediately overlies the anterior branch of the middle meningeal artery, a vessel prone to severe damage (rupture) by a blow to the side of the head.

Cranial cavity, paramedian sagittal section, hence the preservation of the falx cerebri and nasal septum – from the right


 A  Anterior cranial fossa

M  Middle cranial fossa

 P  Posterior cranial fossa

1  Frontal sinus

2  Ethmoidal air cells

3  Sphenoidal sinus

4  Nasal septum

5  Hard palate

6  Presulcal part of dorsum of tongue

7  Genioglossus

8  Postsulcal part of dorsum of tongue

9  Uvula

10  Soft palate

11  Posterior nasal aperture

12  Opening of auditory tube

13  Nasal part of pharynx (nasopharynx)

14  Posterior of foramen magnum

15  Anterior margin of foramen magnum

16  Clivus

17  Pituitary gland

18  Sigmoid sinus

19  Transverse sinus

20  Tentorium cerebelli

21  Free margin of tentorium cerebelli

22  Straight sinus

23  Internal occipital protuberance

24  Occipital bone

25  Superior sagittal sinus

26  Falx cerebri

27  Inferior margin of falx cerebri

28  Parietal bone

29  Frontal bone

30  Crista galli of ethmoid bone

Base of adult skull, external surface – from below


1  First central incisor

2  Second lateral incisor

3  Canine

4  First premolar

5  Second premolar

6  First molar

7  Second molar

8  Third molar

9  Incisive fossa

10  Palatine process of maxilla

11  Horizontal plate of palatine bone

12  Greater palatine foramina

13  Zygomatic process of temporal bone

14  Articular tubercle of temporal bone

15  Mandibular fossa of temporal bone

16  Lateral pterygoid plate

17  Medial pterygoid plate

18  Posterior nasal aperture

19  Vomer

20  Body of sphenoid

21  Pharyngeal tubercle

22  Foramen lacerum

23  Apex of petrous part of temporal bone

24  Foramen ovale

25  Carotid canal

26  Jugular foramen

27  Condylar canal

28  Superior nuchal line

29  External occipital crest

30  Foramen magnum

31  Occipital bone

32  Occipital condyle

33  Occipital groove

34  Mastoid notch

35  Mastoid process

36  Stylomastoid foramen

37  Styloid process

38  Foramen spinosum

39  Pterygoid hamulus

40  Pyramidal process of palatine bone

Base of adult skull, internal surface – from above


 A  Anterior cranial fossa

M  Middle cranial fossa

 P  Posterior cranial fossa

1  Foramen caecum

2  Crista galli of ethmoid bone

3  Cribriform plate of ethmoid bone

4  Orbital part of frontal bone

5  Lesser wing of sphenoid

6  Greater wing of sphenoid

7  Optic canal

8  Sella turcica

9  Clivus

10  Foramen magnum

11  Hiatus and groove for greater petrosal nerve

12  Hiatus and groove for lesser petrosal nerve

13  Tegmen tympani

14  Squamous of temporal bone

15  Petrous part of temporal bone

16  Mastoid angle of parietal bone

17  Occipital bone

18  Internal occipital crest

19  Internal occipital protuberance

20  Groove for superior sagittal sinus

21  Groove for transverse sinus

22  Groove for sigmoid sinus

23  Jugular foramen

24  Internal acoustic meatus

25  Trigeminal impression

26  Apex of petrous part of temporal bone

27  Foramen lacerum

28  Foramen ovale

29  Foramen spinosum

30  Groove for frontal branch of middle meningeal artery and vein

Brain, base, cerebellum and brainstem, with arachnoid mater and blood vessels removed from the left hemisphere – from below


1  Inferior surface of frontal lobe

2  Olfactory bulb

3  Olfactory tract

4  Medial olfactory stria

5  Lateral olfactory stria

6  Inferior temporal sulcus

7  Collateral sulcus

8  Optic chiasma

9  Infundibulum

10  Optic nerve (II)

11  Oculomotor nerve (III)

12  Trochlear nerve (IV)

13  Trigeminal nerve (V)

14  Facial nerve (VII)

15  Vestibulocochlear nerve (VII)

16  Flocculus

17  Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)

18  Vagus nerve (X)

19  Cranial part of accessory nerve (XI)

20  Medulla oblongata

21  Hypoglossal nerve (XII)

22  Vertebral artery

23  Abducent nerve (VI)

24  Basilar artery

25  Pons

26  Optic tract

27  Mamillary body

28  Occipital pole

29  Cerebellum

30  Tonsil of cerebellum

31  Labyrinthine artery

32  Parahippocampal gyrus

33  Internal carotid artery

34  Inferior surface of temporal pole

35  Temporal pole

36  Frontal pole

37  Longitudinal cerebral fissure

A Cranial cavity, base – from above


 A  Anterior cranial fossa

M  Middle cranial fossa

 P  Posterior cranial fossa

1  Frontal sinus

2  Crista galli of ethmoid bone

3  Olfactory nerve filaments (I)

4  Olfactory bulb

5  Olfactory tract

6  Diaphragma sellae

7  Infundibulum

8  Optic nerve (II)

9  Internal carotid artery

10  Oculomotor nerve (III)

11  Abducent nerve (VI)

12  Trochlear nerve (IV)

13  Free margin of tentorium cerebelli

14  Tentorium cerebelli

15  Straight sinus at junction of falx cerebri and tentorium cerebelli

16  Transverse sinus

17  Sigmoid sinus

18  Superior petrosal sinus and cut edges of attached margins of tentorium cerebelli

19  Vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII)

20  Facial nerve (VII)

21  Spinal root of accessory nerve (XI)

22  Medulla oblongata

23  Vertebral artery

24  Basilar artery

25  Inferior petrosal sinus

26  Trigeminal nerve (V)

27  Mandibular nerve (V3)

28  Middle meningeal artery

29  Posterior margin of lesser wing of sphenoid

30  Anterior clinoid process

B Isolated pituitary gland, actual size as presented at dissection


1  Infundibulum of pituitary stalk

2  Adenohypophysis (anterior) lobe of pituitary gland

3  Neurohypophysis (posterior) lobe of pituitary gland

Main blood supply to the brain is via:

  The vertebral arteries.

  The internal carotid arteries.

  A series of communicating vessels between the vertebral and internal carotid arteries form a ring-like anastomosis on the undersurface of the brain to create the arterial circle of Willis.

Cranial cavity, brain and upper spinal cord in a paramedian sagittal section, with removal of the falx cerebri and nasal septum – from the right


1  Skin and dense subcutaneous tissue of scalp

2  Parietal bone

3  Occipital bone

4  Frontal bone

5  Frontal sinus

6  Nasal bone

7  Superior sagittal sinus

8  Transverse sinus

9  Occipital pole

10  Frontal pole

11  Corpus callosum

12  Lateral ventricle

13  Tentorium cerebelli

14  Straight sinus

15  Cerebellar hemisphere

16  Pineal body

17  Midbrain

18  Brainstem

19  Pons

20  Fourth ventricle

21  Posterior margin of foramen magnum

22  Medulla oblongata

23  Cisterna magna

24  Posterior arch of atlas (first [CI] cervical vertebra)

25  Anterior margin of foramen magnum

26  Dens of axis (second [CII] cervical vertebra)

27  Spinal medulla (spinal cord)

28  Optic chiasma

29  Optic nerve (II)

30  Pituitary gland

31  Sphenoidal sinus

32  Spheno-ethmoidal recess

33  Superior nasal concha

34  Middle nasal concha

35  Inferior nasal concha

36  Opening of auditory tube

37  Anterior arch of atlas (first [CI] cervical vertebra)

38  Nasal part of pharynx (nasopharynx)

39  Soft palate

40  Uvula

41  Hard palate

42  Genioglossus

43  Body of mandible

44  Epiglottis

45  Oral part of pharynx (oropharynx)

Cranial cavity, brain and upper spinal cord in a paramedian sagittal section, with removal of the falx cerebri and nasal septum and exposure of cranial nerves in situ from the right


1  Free margin of tentorium cerebelli

2  Inferior colliculus

3  Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX), vagus nerve (X), cranial part of accessory nerve (XI)

4  Facial nerve (VII), vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII)

5  Trigeminal nerve (V)

6  Trochlear nerve (IV) on free margin of tentorium cerebelli

7  Oculomotor nerve (III)

8  Ophthalmic artery

9  Optic chiasma

10  Optic nerve (II)

11  Olfactory tract

12  Olfactory bulb

13  Abducent nerve (VI)

14  Clivus

Cranial cavity, cavernous sinus, cranial nerves in situ – from the left above and slightly behind


 A  Anterior cranial fossa

M  Middle cranial fossa

 P  Posterior cranial fossa

Dotted area denotes extent of the cavernous sinus

1  Falx cerebri

2  Falx cerebri attached to crista galli of ethmoid bone

3  Olfactory bulb

4  Olfactory tract

5  Optic nerve (II)

6  Cortical branches of middle cerebral artery

7  Ophthalmic artery

8  Pituitary gland

9  Oculomotor nerve (III)

10  Posterior cerebellar artery

11  Trochlear nerve (IV)

12  Superior cerebellar artery

13  Trigeminal nerve (V)

14  Trigeminal ganglion

15  Internal carotid artery

16  Posterior margin of lesser wing of sphenoid bone

17  Ophthalmic nerve (V1)

18  Maxillary nerve (V2)

19  Mandibular nerve (V3)

20  Frontal branch of middle

21  Parietal meningeal artery

22  Lesser petrosal nerve

23  Greater petrosal nerve

24  Facial nerve (VII)

25  Labyrinthine artery

26  Vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII)

27  Nervous intermedius

28  Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)

29  Vagus nerve (X)

30  Cranial part of accessory nerve (XI)

31  Spinal root of accessory nerve (XI)

32  Cerebellar hemisphere

Cranial cavity, optic and olfactory nerves in situ from above


 A  Anterior cranial fossa

M  Middle cranial fossa

 P  Posterior cranial fossa

1  Crista galli of ethmoid bone

2  Filaments of olfactory nerves (I)

3  Olfactory bulb

4  Olfactory tract

5  Posterior margin of lesser wing of sphenoid

6  Free margin of tentorium cerebelli (reflected superiorly on right side)

7  Tentorium cerebelli

8  Ophthalmic artery

9  Optic chiasma

10  Optic nerve (II)

11  Eyeball within orbital cavity

12  Cribriform plate of ethmoid bone (outlined)

Olfactory nerve (I):

  Not a single nerve as the name implies, but numerous fine nerve filaments enseathed in dura that pass through the roof of the nose into the anterior cranial fossa via multiple foramina within the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone.

  The nerve filaments then enter the under-surface of the olfactory bulb.

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Jan 22, 2018 | Posted by in ANATOMY | Comments Off on I HEAD, NECK, BRAIN AND UPPER SPINAL CORD
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