Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass

Chapter 11

Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass


Surgical Anatomy

Gastric bypass is the most common bariatric procedure. It has two components, restrictive and malabsorptive, which are both demonstrated in the depiction of a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (Fig. 11-1, A). Because these patients are by definition morbidly obese, the excessive intraabdominal fat can make identification of the anatomy difficult. This chapter describes the anatomic landmarks during Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedure.

The restrictive component of gastric bypass depends on manufacture of a constricted, vertically oriented 20-mL gastric pouch, based on the lesser curvature of the stomach. The lesser curvature musculature is thick and less likely to distend than the fundus of the stomach (Fig. 11-1, B).

Identification and dissection of the angle of His (the angle between the fundus and abdominal esophagus) is a crucial step during construction of the gastric pouch. The angle of His is just to the left of the midline and the gastroesophageal fat pad of Belsey. Transection of the stomach at the angle of His will separate the gastric fundus from the gastric pouch, because the gastric fundus can distend, with resultant weight gain (Fig. 11-1, C). This approach also avoids stapling of the esophagus.

The anterior and posterior nerves of Latarjet descend along the lesser curvature of the stomach and usually lie 0.5 to 1 cm from the gastric wall. On opening the gastrohepatic ligament, the surgeon must perform dissection perigastrically to avoid injury of the anterior or posterior nerve of Latarjet. Injury of these nerves may result in delayed emptying of the distal stomach. Retrogastric adhesions are taken down to allow complete mobilization of the stomach, eliminate any redundant posterior wall of the pouch, and exclude the fundus from the gastric pouch.

Three options to bring the Roux limb up to the gastric pouch are antecolic antegastric, retrocolic retrogastric, and retrocolic antegastric. Retrocolic retrogastric is the shortest path to the gastric pouch (tension free), whereas antecolic antegastric is the simplest of the three approaches.

The greater omentum is divided vertically in the midline, starting from the inferior edge of the omentum to the transverse colon. This approach will decrease the tension on antecolic antegastric Roux limb.

The ligament of Treitz is identified to the left of midline, with the inferior mesenteric vein to its left (Fig. 11-2). On creating a retrocolic path for the Roux limb, a defect in the transverse mesocolon must be anterior and to the left of ligament of Treitz to avoid injury to the middle colic vessels and to the pancreas.

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Aug 12, 2016 | Posted by in ANATOMY | Comments Off on Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass

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