Infectious Mononucleosis



Infectious Mononucleosis


Pei Lin, MD










Epstein-Barr virus infection involving tonsil. Marked lymphoid hyperplasia with many tingible body macrophages, with focal karyorrhexis and exudate, are shown.






EBV lymphadenitis. Small to large lymphoid cells, eosinophils, and plasma cells are seen. The large cells image are immunoblasts with prominent nucleoli.


TERMINOLOGY


Abbreviations



  • Infectious mononucleosis (IM)


Synonyms



  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lymphadenitis, Pfeiffer disease, glandular fever


Definitions



  • Acute lymphadenitis induced by EBV infection


ETIOLOGY/PATHOGENESIS


Infectious Agents



  • Epstein-Barr virus


CLINICAL ISSUES


Epidemiology



  • Age



    • Mostly adolescents and young adults in USA



      • Even younger age in developing countries


  • Gender



    • No gender preference


Presentation



  • Fever


  • Pharyngitis


  • Lymphadenopathy


  • Peripheral blood lymphocytosis of atypical lymphocytes


Laboratory Tests



  • Monospot test (a.k.a. heterophile antibody test)


  • EBV-specific antibody tests by immunofluorescence



    • Elevated IgM antiviral capsid antigen (VCAs) and absence of antibodies to EBV nuclear antigen (anti-EBNA) indicate acute infection


Treatment



  • Options, risks, complications



    • Observation is sufficient in most cases as disease resolves by itself


    • Infection may be complicated by rupture of spleen or hepatitis

Jul 8, 2016 | Posted by in PATHOLOGY & LABORATORY MEDICINE | Comments Off on Infectious Mononucleosis
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