Cardiovascular Physiology

Chapter 4 Cardiovascular Physiology

I. Cardiac Mechanics

Reflect valve closure and/or pathologic states

2. S2: closure of semilunar valves

D. Ventricular pressure changes during the cardiac cycle (Fig. 4-3)

II. Cardiac Performance

B. Stroke volume

SV is determined by three principal factors: preload, contractility, and afterload.

4. Mechanical characterization of contraction

C. Venous return
1. Effect of venous return on cardiac output by influencing preload

2. Other determinants of venous return

D. Ventricular pressure-volume loops

2. There are four phases (Fig. 4-10).

E. Atrial pressure changes during the cardiac cycle (Fig. 4-11)

F. Pathophysiology of the major valvular diseases
1. Aortic stenosis

Figure 4-12A shows a pressure-volume loop in a patient with aortic stenosis.

2. Aortic regurgitation (insufficiency)

3. Mitral stenosis

In mitral stenosis (Fig. 4-14), the mitral valve becomes stenotic owing to abnormal structural changes.

4. Mitral regurgitation (insufficiency)

Figure 4-15 shows the hemodynamic changes in mitral regurgitation. Note that both the left atrium and left ventricle are enlarged.

Jul 4, 2016 | Posted by in PHYSIOLOGY | Comments Off on Cardiovascular Physiology
Premium Wordpress Themes by UFO Themes
%d bloggers like this: