Cancer Epidemiology

Chapter 13


Cancer Epidemiology


Kathryn L. McCance



Although cancer arises from a complicated and an interacting web of multiple etiologies, avoiding high-risk behaviors and exposure to individual carcinogens, or cancer-causing substances, will prevent many types of cancer (Figure 13-1).13 Research has shown that lifestyle behaviors, dietary and environmental factors (such as exposure to ultraviolet radiation and infections), and occupational exposure contribute to the number of cancer cases and deaths.46 In this context, any of the following factors can contribute to the development of cancer79:




The question of estimating the environmentally attributable risk for cancer is deceptive because such estimates vary tremendously as a result of the definition of the environment used. Therefore, another way of examining what portion of cancer risk is attributable to the environment involves asking, “What is not attributable to the environment?”10 In this context, it is usually those cancers caused by highly penetrant genes; inherited mutations very rarely predispose us to cancer.1114 The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) completed a review of the more than 100 chemicals, occupations, physical agents, biologic agents, and other agents classified as carcinogenic to humans.7 Simplified tables with a list of classifications by cancer sites with sufficient or limited evidence in humans are contained in Table 13-1.



TABLE 13-1


LIST OF CLASSIFICATIONS BY CANCER SITES WITH SUFFICIENT OR LIMITED EVIDENCE IN HUMANS











































































































































































































CANCER SITE CARCINOGENIC AGENTS WITH SUFFICIENT EVIDENCE IN HUMANS AGENTS WITH LIMITED EVIDENCE IN HUMANS
Lip, Oral Cavity, and Pharynx
Lip   Solar radiation
Oral cavity Alcoholic beverages
Betel quid with tobacco
Betel quid without tobacco
Human papillomavirus type 16
Tobacco, smokeless
Tobacco smoking
 
Salivary gland X-radiation, γ-radiation Radioiodines, including iodine-131
Tonsil Human papillomavirus type 16  
Pharynx Alcoholic beverages
Betel quid with tobacco
Human papillomavirus type 16
Tobacco smoking
Asbestos (all forms)
Mate drinking, hot
Printing presses
Tobacco smoke, secondhand
Nasopharynx Epstein-Barr virus
Formaldehyde
Salted fish, Chinese-style
Wood dust
 
Digestive tract, upper Acetaldehyde associated with consumption of alcoholic beverages  
Digestive Organs
Esophagus Acetaldehyde associated with consumption of alcoholic beverages
Alcoholic beverages
Betel quid with tobacco
Betel quid without tobacco
Tobacco, smokeless
Tobacco smoking
X-radiation, γ-radiation
Dry cleaning
Mate drinking, hot
Pickled vegetables (traditional Asian)
Rubber production industry
Tetrachloroethylene
Stomach Helicobacter pylori
Rubber production industry
Tobacco smoking
X-radiation, γ-radiation
Asbestos (all forms)
Epstein-Barr virus
Lead compounds, inorganic
Nitrate or nitrite (ingested) under conditions that result in endogenous nitrosation
Pickled vegetables (traditional Asian)
Salted fish (Chinese style)
Colon and rectum Alcoholic beverages
Tobacco smoking
X-radiation, γ-radiation
Asbestos (all forms)
Schistosoma japonicum
Anus Human immunodeficiency virus type 1
Human papillomavirus type 16
Human papillomavirus types 18, 33
Liver and bile duct Aflatoxins
Alcoholic beverages
Clonorchis sinensis
Estrogen-progestogen contraceptives
Hepatitis B virus
Hepatitis C virus
Opisthorchis viverrini
Plutonium
Thorium-232 and its decay products
Tobacco smoking (in smokers and in smokers’ children)
Vinyl chloride
Androgenic (anabolic) steroids
Arsenic and inorganic arsenic compounds
Betel quid without tobacco
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1
Polychlorinated biphenyls
Schistosoma japonicum
Trichloroethylene
X-radiation, γ-radiation
Gallbladder Thorium-232 and its decay products  
Pancreas Tobacco, smokeless
Tobacco smoking
Alcoholic beverages
Thorium-232 and its decay products
X-radiation, γ-radiation
Digestive tract, unspecified   Radioiodines, including iodine-131
Respiratory Organs
Nasal cavity and paranasal sinus Isopropyl alcohol production
Leather dust
Nickel compounds
Radium-226 and its decay products
Radium-228 and its decay products
Tobacco smoking
Wood dust
Carpentry and joinery
Chromium (VI) compounds
Formaldehyde
Textile manufacturing
Larynx Acid mists, strong inorganic
Alcoholic beverages
Asbestos (all forms)
Tobacco smoking
Human papillomavirus type 16
Mate drinking, hot
Rubber production industry
Sulfur mustard
Tobacco smoke, secondhand
Lung Aluminum production
Arsenic and inorganic arsenic compounds
Beryllium and beryllium products
Bis(chloromethyl) ether; chloromethyl methyl ether (technical grade)
Cadmium and cadmium compounds
Chromium (VI) compounds
Coal, indoor emissions from household combustion
Coal gasification
Coal-tar pitch
Coke production
Hematite mining (underground)
Iron and steel founding
MOPP (vincristine-prednisone-nitrogen mustard-procarbazine mixture)
Nickel compounds
Painting
Plutonium
Radon-222 and its decay products
Rubber production industry
Silica dust, crystalline
Soot
Sulfur mustard
Tobacco smoke, secondhand
Tobacco smoking
X-radiation, γ-radiation
Acid mists, strong inorganic
Art glass, glass containers, and pressed ware (manufacture of)
Biomass fuel (primarily wood), indoor emissions from household combustion of
Bitumens, oxidized, and their emissions during roofing
Bitumens, hard, and their emissions during mastic asphalt work
Carbon electrode manufacture
α-Chlorinated toluenes and benzyl chloride (combined exposure)
Cobalt metal with tungsten carbide
Creosotes
Engine exhaust, diesel
Frying, emissions from high-temperature
Insecticides, nonarsenical (occupational exposures in spraying and application)
Printing processes
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin
Welding fumes
Bone, Skin, and Mesothelium, Endothelium, and Soft Tissue
Bone Plutonium
Radium-224 and its decay products
Radium-226 and its decay products
Radium-228 and its decay products
X-radiation, γ-radiation
Radioiodines, including iodine-131
Skin (melanoma) Solar radiation
Ultraviolet-emitting tanning devices
 
Skin (other malignant neoplasms) Arsenic and inorganic arsenic compounds
Azathioprine
Coal-tar distillation
Coal-tar pitch
Cyclosporine
Methoxsalen plus ultraviolet A
Mineral oils, untreated or mildly treated
Shale oils
Solar radiation
Soot
X-radiation, γ-radiation
Creosotes
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1
Human papillomavirus types 5 and 8 (in individuals with epidermodysplasia verruciformis)
Nitrogen mustard
Petroleum refining (occupational exposures)
Ultraviolet-emitting tanning devices
Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV)
Mesothelium (pleura and peritoneum) Asbestos (all forms)
Erionite
Painting
 
Endothelium (Kaposi sarcoma) Human immunodeficiency virus type 1
Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus
 
Soft tissue   Polychlorophenols or their sodium salts (combined exposures)
Radioiodines, including iodine-131
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin
Breast and Female Genital Organs
Breast Alcoholic beverages
Diethylstilbestrol
Estrogen-progestogen contraceptives
Estrogen-progestogen menopausal therapy
X-radiation, γ-radiation
Estrogen menopausal therapy
Ethylene oxide
Shiftwork that involves circadian disruption
Tobacco smoking
Vulva Human papillomavirus 16 Human immunodeficiency virus type 1
Vagina Diethylstilbestrol (exposure in utero)
Human papillomavirus 16
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1
Uterine cervix Diethylstilbestrol (exposure in utero)
Estrogen-progestogen contraceptives
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1
Human papillomavirus types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59
Tobacco smoking
Human papillomavirus types 26, 53, 66, 67, 68, 70, 73, 82
Tetrachloroethylene
Endometrium Estrogen menopausal therapy
Estrogen-progestogen menopausal therapy
Tamoxifen
Diethylstilbestrol
Ovary Asbestos (all forms)
Estrogen menopausal therapy
Tobacco smoking
Talc-based body powder (perineal use)
X-radiation, γ-radiation
Male Genital Organs
Penis Human papillomavirus type 16 Human immunodeficiency virus type 1
Human papillomavirus type 18
Prostrate   Androgenic (anabolic) steroids
Arsenic and inorganic arsenic compounds
Cadmium and cadmium compounds
Rubber production industry
Thorium-232 and its decay products
X-radiation, γ-radiation
Testis   Diethylstilbestrol exposure in utero
Urinary Tract
Kidney Tobacco smoking
X-radiation, γ-radiation
Arsenic and inorganic arsenic compounds
Cadmium and cadmium compounds
Printing processes
Renal pelvis and ureter Aristolochic acids, plants containing phenacetin
Phenacetin, analgesic mixtures containing
Tobacco smoking
Aristolochic acids
Urinary bladder Aluminum production
4-Aminobiphenyl
Arsenic and inorganic arsenic compounds
Auramine production
Benzidine
Chlornaphazine
Cyclophosphamide
Magenta production
2-Naphthylamine
4-Chloro-ortho-toluidine
Coal-tar pitch
Coffee
Dry cleaning
Engine exhaust, diesel
Hairdressers and barbers (occupational exposure)
Printing processes
Soot
Textile manufacturing
  Painting
Rubber production industry
Schistosoma haematobium
Tobacco smoking
ortho-Toluidine
X-radiation, γ-radiation
 
Eye, Brain, and Central Nervous System
Eye Human immunodeficiency virus type 1
Ultraviolet-emitting tanning devices
Welding
Solar radiation
Brain and central nervous system X-radiation, γ-radiation Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (including from wireless phones)
Endocrine Glands
Thyroid Radioiodines, including iodine-131
X-radiation, γ-radiation
 
Lymphoid, Hematopoietic, and Related Tissue
Leukemia and/or lymphoma Azathioprine
Benzene
Busulfan
1,3-Butadiene
Chlorambucil
Cyclophosphamide
Cyclosporine
Epstein-Barr virus
Etoposide with cisplatin and bleomycin
Fission products, including strontium-90
Formaldehyde
Helicobacter pylori
Hepatitis C virus
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1
Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1
Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus
Melphalan
MOPP (vincristine-prednisone-nitrogen mustard-procarbazine mixture)
Phosphorus-32
Rubber production industry
Semustine (methyl-CCNU)
Thiotepa
Thorium-23 and its decay products
Tobacco smoking
Treosulfan
X-radiation, γ-radiation
Bis(chloroethyl)nitrosourea (BBCNU)
Chloramphenicol
Ethylene oxide
Etoposide
Hepatitis B virus
Magnetic fields, extremely low frequency (childhood leukemia)
Mitoxantrone
Nitrogen mustard
Painting (childhood leukemia from maternal exposure)
Petroleum refining (occupational exposures)
Polychlorophenols or their sodium salts (combined exposures)
Radioiodines, including iodine-131
Radon-222 and its decay products
Styrene
Teniposide
Tetrachloroethylene
Trichloroethylene
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin
Tobacco smoking (childhood leukemia in smokers’ children)
Malaria (caused by infection with Plasmodium falciparum in holoendemic areas)
Multiple or Unspecific Sites
Multiple sites (unspecified) Cyclosporine
Fission products, including strontium-90
X-radiation, γ-radiation (exposure in utero)
Chlorophenoxy herbicides
Plutonium
All cancer sites (combined) 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin  

Sep 9, 2016 | Posted by in PATHOLOGY & LABORATORY MEDICINE | Comments Off on Cancer Epidemiology
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