Cardiovascular Physiology

Chapter 4 Cardiovascular Physiology



I. Cardiac Mechanics




Reflect valve closure and/or pathologic states

2. S2: closure of semilunar valves







D. Ventricular pressure changes during the cardiac cycle (Fig. 4-3)














II. Cardiac Performance



B. Stroke volume




SV is determined by three principal factors: preload, contractility, and afterload.
Preload







4. Mechanical characterization of contraction


C. Venous return
1. Effect of venous return on cardiac output by influencing preload










2. Other determinants of venous return


D. Ventricular pressure-volume loops

2. There are four phases (Fig. 4-10).




E. Atrial pressure changes during the cardiac cycle (Fig. 4-11)







F. Pathophysiology of the major valvular diseases
1. Aortic stenosis



Figure 4-12A shows a pressure-volume loop in a patient with aortic stenosis.





2. Aortic regurgitation (insufficiency)





3. Mitral stenosis


In mitral stenosis (Fig. 4-14), the mitral valve becomes stenotic owing to abnormal structural changes.








4. Mitral regurgitation (insufficiency)



Figure 4-15 shows the hemodynamic changes in mitral regurgitation. Note that both the left atrium and left ventricle are enlarged.

Jul 4, 2016 | Posted by in PHYSIOLOGY | Comments Off on Cardiovascular Physiology
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