was required only when a nutrient was added to the food or a claim was made on the label or in advertising about the food’s nutritional properties. In 1984, the regulations were expanded when the FDA added sodium to the list of nutrients required on nutrition labeling. Potassium also was added as an optional nutrient (10).
the content for nutrients that consumers were seeking to minimize appear more favorable, or larger serving sizes, to overemphasize more positive nutrients.
TABLE 107.1 FOODS EXEMPT FROM NUTRITION LABELING
Calories (may also be expressed as total calories): The caloric content per serving is declared in 5-calorie increments up to 50 calories and 10-calorie increments above 50 calories. Energy content may also be expressed as kilojoules in parentheses. FDA regulations provide several methods for determining caloric content, including (a) Atwater factors (30); (b) general factors 4, 4, and 9, for protein, carbohydrate, and fat, respectively, or the same general factors but with insoluble fiber subtracted from total carbohydrate; (c) specific factors approved by the FDA; or (d) bomb calorimetry. The term “energy” may be added in parentheses following “Total Calories.”
Calories from fat: Calories from fat are declared in the same manner and increments as calories. If a serving contains less than 0.5 g of fat, calories from fat may be omitted and the statement, “Not a significant source of calories from fat” is placed at the bottom of the table of nutrient values.
Calories from saturated fat: Calories from saturated fat may be voluntarily declared.
Fat (total fat): Fat is defined as total lipid fatty acids. Amounts are rounded to the nearest 0.5-g increment below 5 g and to the nearest gram increment above 5 g, and can be stated as zero if the serving contains less than 0.5 g.
Saturated fat (or saturated): Saturated fat is required to be listed, with the same increments and rounding rules as fat.
Trans-fat (or trans): Trans-fat is defined as the sum of all unsaturated fatty acids that contain one or more isolated (i.e., nonconjugated) double bonds in a trans-configuration and must be declared with the same increments and rounding rules as fat.
Polyunsaturated fat (or polyunsaturated): Polyunsaturated fat is defined as cis-, cis-methylene-interrupted polyunsaturated fatty acids, and may be declared voluntarily. The declaration is indented under the declaration for total fat.
Monounsaturated fat (or monounsaturated): Monounsaturated fat is defined as cis-monounsaturated fatty acids and may be declared voluntarily except when polyunsaturated fat is declared or a claim about fatty acids or cholesterol is made.
Cholesterol: Cholesterol is expressed in milligrams per serving to the nearest 5-mg increment, and may be declared as zero if a serving contains less than 2 mg and the product makes no claim about fat, fatty acids, or cholesterol content. If cholesterol is not required to be declared, the statement “Not a significant source of cholesterol” is placed at the bottom of the table of nutrient values.
Sodium: Sodium, in milligrams per serving, must be declared to the nearest 5-mg increment when the serving contains 5 to 140 mg of sodium, and to the nearest 10-mg increment when the serving contains greater than 140 mg. Sodium may be declared as zero for servings containing less than 5 mg.
Potassium: Potassium may be voluntarily declared, using the same units and criteria as for sodium.
Total carbohydrate: The Nutrition Facts panel must contain a statement of carbohydrate content, expressed in grams. If a serving contains less than 1 g carbohydrate, the label may contain a statement, “less than 1 gram.” Servings containing less than 0.5 g of carbohydrate may be declared as zero carbohydrate. Carbohydrate content is determined by difference, that is, the subtraction of the sum of the crude protein, total fat, moisture, and ash from the total weight of the food (31).
Dietary fiber: Dietary fiber content must be declared, using the same criteria as for total carbohydrate.
Soluble fiber and insoluble fiber: The content per serving of either or both soluble and insoluble fiber may be voluntarily declared, using the same criteria as for dietary fiber.
Sugars: Sugars, defined as the sum of all free monosaccharides and disaccharides (e.g., glucose, fructose, lactose, sucrose), are declared in gram units, again using the same criteria as for total carbohydrate.
Sugar alcohol: When sugar alcohols are present in a food, the sugar alcohol content of a serving must be declared in the Nutrition Facts panel, in gram units. Sugar alcohols are defined as the sum of saccharide derivatives in which a hydroxyl group replaces a ketone or aldehyde group and whose use in the food has been approved by the FDA (e.g., mannitol, xylitol, sorbitol).
Other carbohydrate: Other carbohydrate is defined as the difference between total carbohydrate and the sum of dietary fiber, sugars, and sugar alcohol, and the content per serving may be declared voluntarily.
Protein: Protein is declared in gram units for servings containing more than 1 g of protein. Protein content is calculated by multiplying the nitrogen content of a serving by a factor of 6.25 (unless other factors are required for specific foods) (32). The FDA also includes a number of protein quality criteria. Protein quality is determined by the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) (33). Except in the case of a food marketed to children less than 4 years old, the protein quality must be at least 20%; otherwise, the label must state that the food is not a significant source of protein. For foods marketed to children less than 4 years old, the PDCAAS must be at least 40% for the food to qualify as a significant source of protein. For foods marketed to infants, the older protein efficiency ratio (PER; which is a biologic assay of the quality of a particular protein, measured as the gain in weight of an animal per gram of the protein eaten) is still cited as the measure of protein quality, and the PER must be at least 40% of the reference standard, casein, for the food to be considered a source of protein.
Vitamins and minerals: Vitamins and minerals are expressed as a percentage of the daily value (DV). Vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, and iron, in that order, are required to be listed. Any other vitamin or mineral listed in Table 107.2 may be declared, unless the nutrient is added to the food or a claim is made about the nutrient, in which case the percent DV must be declared. Exceptions are made for nutrients in standardized foods (e.g., thiamin, riboflavin, niacin in enriched flour) and when the standardized food is used as an ingredient in another food. Exemptions are also made for nutrients added to food strictly for technologic purposes (e.g., ascorbic acid added as an antioxidant). The percentages for vitamins and minerals are expressed to the nearest 2% increment, up to and including the 10% level, the nearest 5% increment above 10%, and up to the 50% level, and the nearest 10% increment above the 50% level. Amounts of vitamins and minerals present at less than 2% of the reference daily intake (RDI) may be declared as zero.
might affect national defense. The committee created a set of recommendations for standard daily allowances for each nutrient, which would be used for nutrition recommendations for military personnel, civilians, and food relief overseas. The final set of guidelines, RDA, was accepted in 1941. The Food and Nutrition Board has periodically reviewed the RDAs and revised them as necessary. More recently, in a project jointly with the governments of Canada and the United States, the Food and Nutrition Board replaced the RDAs (United States) and the recommended nutrient intakes (RNIs) (Canada) with dietary reference intakes (DRIs) and is in the process of issuing a series of reports to establish RDI. For example, a report on energy and the macronutrients carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids was published in 2005 (34). Another report in this series, on calcium and vitamin D, was also released. A listing of the DRIs for various nutrients and population groups can be found on the NAS IOM website (35).
TABLE 107.2 REFERENCE DAILY INTAKES