Amniotic Fluid-Derived Cells: An Autologous Cell Source for Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering

Fig. 9.1
Amniotic fluid cell-based engineered heart valve after 28 days in vitro conditioning in a diastolic pulse duplicator system (from [38])


Fig. 9.2
Human amniotic fluid cells (AFCs) sorted with CD133 magnetic beads resulted in endothelial-like CD133+ cells (ae) and mesenchymal-like CD133− cells (fj). While CD133+ cells showed positive staining for Vimentin, eNOS and vWF, CD133− cells stained positive for αSMA and Vimentin (from [61])

In the light of a careful preclinical evaluation of AFCs for cardiovascular tissue engineering applications, the characterization of amniotic fluid harvested from an ovine preclinical model—representing the standard model in cardiovascular medicine—has recently been reported [61]. Several biochemical parameters, like total protein amount or electrolytes, have been suggested as possible indicators for a specific isolation of amniotic fluid in sheep. Moreover, isolated cells showed a stable karyotype with expression of common mesenchymal stem cell surface markers as well as of some stem cell factors like NANOG and STAT-3. In contrast to the successful sorting of human amniotic fluid-derived cells based on AC133.1 [38], isolation of sheep endothelial cells was not possible using this technique. Nevertheless functional in vitro fabrication of tissue engineered vascular grafts and cardiovascular patches could be shown using amniotic fluid-derived cells (Fig. 9.3). However, more in vivo experiments in preclinical models are indispensable to evaluate this cell source for a possible human clinical translation. The exact in vivo fate of the cells needs to be defined in order to guarantee safety and exclude adverse effects for a potential prenatal therapy. In conclusion, amniotic fluid-derived cells represent an effective cell source for the treatment of congenital defects. In particular their early availability via low-risk procedures as well as their wide differentiation capacities hold great potential for autologous tissue engineering applications.


Fig. 9.3
(ac) In vitro fabricated tissue engineered vascular grafts (small and large diameter) with the use of ovine amniotic fluid-derived cells (from [61])



Abdel-Latif A, Bolli R, Tleyjeh I, Montori V, Perin E, Hornung C, et al. Adult bone marrow-derived cells for cardiac repair: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167(10):989–97.PubMedCrossRef


Ben-David U, Benvenisty N. The tumorigenicity of human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. Nat Rev Cancer. 2011;11(4):268–77.PubMedCrossRef


Bollini S, Cheung KK, Riegler J, Dong X, Smart N, Ghionzoli M, et al. Amniotic fluid stem cells are cardioprotective following acute myocardial infarction. Stem Cells Dev. 2011;20(11):1985–94.PubMedCrossRef


Brennan MP, Dardik A, Hibino N, Roh JD, Nelson GN, Papademitris X, et al. Tissue engineered vascular grafts demonstrate evidence of growth and development when implanted in a juvenile animal model. Ann Surg. 2008;248(3):370–7.PubMedCentralPubMed


Cananzi M, Atala A, De Coppi P. Stem cells derived from amniotic fluid: new potentials in regenerative medicine. Reprod Biomed Online. 2009;18(1):17–27.PubMedCrossRef


Cannegieter SC, Rosendaal FR, Briet E. Thromboembolic and bleeding complications in patients with mechanical heart valve prostheses. Circulation. 1994;89(2):635–41.PubMedCrossRef


Colazzo F, Sarathchandra P, Smolenski RT, Chester AH, Tseng Y-T, Czernuszka JT, et al. Extracellular matrix production by adipose-derived stem cells: implications for heart valve tissue engineering. Biomaterials. 2011;32(1):119–27.PubMedCrossRef


De Coppi P, Bartsch G, Siddiqui MM, Xu T, Santos CC, Perin L, et al. Isolation of amniotic stem cell lines with potential for therapy. Nat Biotechnol. 2007;25(1):100–6.PubMedCrossRef


Dasi LP, Simon HA, Sucosky P, Yoganathan AP. Fluid mechanics of artificial heart valves. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2009;36(2): 225–37.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef


Dolgin E. Taking tissue engineering to heart. Nat Med. 2011;17(9): 1032–5.PubMedCrossRef


Emmert MY, Weber B, Behr L, Frauenfelder T, Brokopp CE, Grünenfelder J, et al. Transapical aortic implantation of autologous marrow stromal cell-based tissue-engineered heart valves: first experiences in the systemic circulation. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2011;4(7):822–3.PubMedCrossRef


Emmert MY, Weber B, Behr L, Sammut S, Frauenfelder T, Wolint P, et al. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation using anatomically oriented, marrow stromal cell-based, stented, tissue-engineered heart valves: technical considerations and implications for translational cell-based heart valve concepts. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2014;45(1):61–8.PubMedCrossRef


Go AS, Mozaffarian D, Roger VL, Benjamin EJ, Berry JD, Borden WB, et al. Executive summary: heart disease and stroke statistics–2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2013;127(1):143–52.PubMedCrossRef


Gosden CM. Amniotic fluid cell types and culture. Br Med Bull. 1983;39(4):348–54.PubMed


Goyal A, Wang Y, Su H, Dobrucki LW, Brennan M, Fong P, et al. Development of a model system for preliminary evaluation of tissue-engineered vascular conduits. J Pediatr Surg. 2006;41(4): 787–91.PubMedCrossRef


Hibino N, McGillicuddy E, Matsumura G, Ichihara Y, Naito Y, Breuer C, et al. Late-term results of tissue-engineered vascular grafts in humans. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2010;139(2):431–6, 436.e1–2.PubMedCrossRef


Hibino N, Yi T, Duncan DR, Rathore A, Dean E, Naito Y, et al. A critical role for macrophages in neovessel formation and the development of stenosis in tissue-engineered vascular grafts. FASEB J. 2011;25(12):4253–63.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef

Mar 22, 2018 | Posted by in BIOCHEMISTRY | Comments Off on Amniotic Fluid-Derived Cells: An Autologous Cell Source for Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering
Premium Wordpress Themes by UFO Themes
%d bloggers like this: