Low-Grade Fibromyxoid Sarcoma



Low-Grade Fibromyxoid Sarcoma


Khin Thway, BSc, MBBS, FRCPath









Hematoxylin & eosin shows low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma, as well as the interface between the myxoid areas image and the collagenous areas image of the tumor.






Hematoxylin & eosin shows low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma with a giant rosette, composed of sparsely cellular collagenous tissue cuffed by a cellular distribution of tumor cells image.


TERMINOLOGY


Abbreviations



  • Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS)


Synonyms



  • Fibrosarcoma, fibromyxoid type; hyalinizing spindle cell tumor with giant rosettes


Definitions



  • Malignant fibroblastic neoplasm composed of bland spindle cells in collagenous and myxoid matrix, often with prominent collagenous nodules


  • Characterized by specific translocations producing fusion oncogenes


  • Despite histologically low-grade morphology, up to 30% can metastasize


ETIOLOGY/PATHOGENESIS


Characteristic Translocations



  • Produce chimeric fusion genes


  • Cellular origin still unknown but mesenchymal neoplasm with cells of fibroblastic type


CLINICAL ISSUES


Epidemiology



  • Incidence



    • True incidence unknown


    • Tumor probably underreported in literature due to its morphologic resemblance to other benign and malignant tumors


  • Age



    • Adults (typically in 4th decade), but wide age distribution



      • Significant proportion occur in patients < 18 years old


  • Gender



    • M > F


Site



  • Mainly deep-seated but can also occur in dermis and subcutis


  • Proximal extremities (especially lower limbs) and trunk


  • Rarely other locations, including viscera


  • Superficial lesions have higher incidence in childhood


Presentation



  • Painless mass



    • Many are of long duration


Treatment



  • Surgical approaches



    • Wide excision


    • Long-term follow-up is mandatory, in view of potential for late metastases


Prognosis



  • Recurrence rates of up to 21%



    • Recurrence is lower in superficial cases


  • Metastatic rate of approximately 30% in genetically confirmed cases



    • > 80% of metastases appeared after 9 years


    • No reported metastases in superficial tumors


MACROSCOPIC FEATURES


General Features

Jul 9, 2016 | Posted by in PATHOLOGY & LABORATORY MEDICINE | Comments Off on Low-Grade Fibromyxoid Sarcoma
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