Cervical squamous carcinoma, Pap smear
This Pap smear shows more pleomorphic, darker, and larger cells (▼) indicative of a carcinoma. The neutrophilic inflammation and red blood cells in the background are characteristic of a more aggressive, ulcerative, and invasive lesion. It is essential to follow up an abnormal Pap smear showing dysplasia or carcinoma with a biopsy and treatment. Risk factors for cervical neoplasia include early age at first intercourse, multiple sexual partners, increased parity, male sexual partners with multiple previous sexual partners, and exposure to high-risk human papillomavirus subtypes 16 and 18 (causing 70% of cancers), as well as 31, 45, 33, 35, 39, 51, 52, 56, 58, 66, 68, and 70.