Skin Disorders



Skin Disorders





ACNE

Acne is an inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous units (hair follicles). It occurs on areas of the body that have sebaceous glands, such as the face, neck, chest, back, and shoulders, and is associated with a high rate of sebum secretion. When sebum blocks a hair follicle, one of two types of acne develops. In inflammatory acne, bacterial growth in the blocked follicle leads to inflammation and eventual rupture of the follicle. In noninflammatory acne, the follicle remains dilated by accumulating secretions but does not rupture.



Causes



  • Multifactorial — diet not believed to be a factor


Predisposing Factors



  • Heredity


  • Androgen stimulation


  • Certain drugs, including corticosteroids, corticotropin, androgens, iodides, bromides, trimethadione, phenytoin, isoniazid, lithium, and halothane


  • Exposure to heavy oils, greases, tars, and cosmetics


  • Cobalt irradiation


  • Hyperalimentation


  • Trauma, skin occlusion, or pressure


  • Emotional stress


  • Hormonal contraceptive use (may exacerbate acne in some women)







ATOPIC DERMATITIS

Atopic dermatitis (also called atopic or infantile eczema) is a chronic or recurrent inflammatory skin disease. It is commonly associated with other atopic diseases, such as bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis. Atopic dermatitis is genetically transmitted.



Causes

The exact etiology is unknown. A genetic predisposition is likely, with a complex relationship between genetic and environmental factors.


Possible Contributing Factors



  • Studies are showing that second hand tobacco smoke exposure is a contributing factor


  • Food allergy, especially eggs, peanuts, milk, or wheat


  • Infection


  • Chemical irritants


  • Extremes of temperature and humidity


  • Psychological stress or strong emotions







BURNS

Burns are the third leading cause of accidental death in the United States.


Causes



  • Thermal: residential fires, automobile accidents, playing with matches, improper handling of firecrackers, scalds caused by kitchen, or bathroom accidents


  • Chemical: contact, ingestion, inhalation, or injection of acids, alkalis, or vesicants


  • Electrical: contact with faulty electrical wiring, electrical cords, or high-voltage power lines


  • Friction or abrasion


  • Ultraviolet radiation: sunburn







CELLULITIS

Cellulitis is an acute, spreading infection of the dermis or subcutaneous layer of the skin. It may follow damage to the skin, such as a bite or wound. As the cellulitis spreads, fever, erythema, and lymphangitis may occur. Persons with a chronic illness, such as diabetes mellitus immunodeficiency, or Peripheral artery disease contributing health problems, such as diabetes, immunodeficiency, or impaired circulation, have an increased risk for cellulitis. If treated promptly, the prognosis is usually good.



Causes



  • Bacterial infections, commonly with group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus or Staphylococcus aureus


  • In patients with diabetes or decreased immune function: Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Acinetobacter, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pasteurella multocida, Vibrio vulnificus, Mycobacterium fortuitum complex, and Cryptococcus neoformans


  • In children, less commonly caused by pneumococci and Neisseria meningitidis group B (periorbital)







CONTACT DERMATITIS

Contact dermatitis commonly appears as a sharply demarcated inflammation of the skin that results from contact with an irritating chemical or atopic allergen (a substance that produces an allergic reaction in the skin). It can also appear as an irritation of the skin that results from contact with concentrated substances to which the skin is sensitized, such as perfumes, soaps, chemicals, or metals and alloys (such as nickel used in jewelry). Localized inflammatory skin resulting from exposure of a wide range of chemical or physical agents.


Causes


Mild Irritants



  • Chronic exposure to detergents or solvents


Strong Irritants

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Sep 22, 2018 | Posted by in ANATOMY | Comments Off on Skin Disorders
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