Renal vein thrombosis
Clotting in the renal vein results in renal congestion, engorgement and, possibly, infarction. Renal vein thrombosis may affect both kidneys and may occur in an acute or a chronic form.
Chronic thrombosis usually impairs renal function, causing nephrotic syndrome. Abrupt onset of thrombosis that causes extensive damage may precipitate rapidly fatal renal infarction.
If thrombosis affects both kidneys, the prognosis is poor. However, less-severe thrombosis that affects only one kidney or gradual progression that allows development of collateral circulation may preserve partial renal function.
Renal vein thrombosis results from trauma to the abdomen or back, stricture (scar formation), or a tumor that obstructs the renal vein (usually hypernephroma).
Other causes include thrombophlebitis of the inferior vena cava (may result from abdominal trauma) or blood vessels of the legs, heart failure, and periarteritis. In infants, renal vein thrombosis usually follows diarrhea that causes severe dehydration.
Chronic renal vein thrombosis is a common complication of other glomerulopathic diseases, such as amyloidosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, diabetic nephropathy, and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis.