Myringitis, acute infectious
Acute infectious myringitis is characterized by inflammation, hemorrhage, and effusion of fluid into the tissue at the end of the external ear canal and the tympanic membrane. This self-limiting disorder (resolving spontaneously within 3 days to 2 weeks) commonly follows acute otitis media or upper respiratory tract infection and commonly occurs epidemically in children.
Chronic granular myringitis, a rare inflammation of the squamous layer of the tympanic membrane, causes gradual hearing loss. Without specific treatment, this condition can lead to stenosis of the ear canal, as granulation extends from the tympanic membrane to the external ear.
Acute infectious myringitis usually follows viral infection but may also result from infection with bacteria (pneumococci, Haemophilus influenzae, betahemolytic streptococci, staphylococci) or any other organism that may cause acute otitis media. Myringitis is a rare sequela of atypical pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae.