Lower limb
















Lower limb







  • A

    surface anatomy, from the front


  • B

    dissection, from the front


  • C

    dissection, from behind


  • D

    dissection, from the lateral side


  • E

    skeleton, from the lateral side



  • 1

    Adductors


  • 2

    Biceps femoris


  • 3

    Calcaneus


  • 4

    Femur


  • 5

    Fibula


  • 6

    Gastrocnemius


  • 7

    Gluteus maximus


  • 8

    Hamstrings


  • 9

    Hip bone


  • 10

    Inguinal ligament


  • 11

    Iliotibial tract


  • 12

    Metatarsal bones


  • 13

    Patella


  • 14

    Phalanges of toes


  • 15

    Peroneus (fibularis)


  • 16

    Quadriceps


  • 17

    Tibia





Left hip bone








  • lateral surface



  • 1

    Acetabular notch


  • 2

    Acetabulum


  • 3

    Anterior gluteal line


  • 4

    Anterior inferior iliac spine


  • 5

    Anterior superior iliac spine


  • 6

    Body of ilium


  • 7

    Body of ischium


  • 8

    Body of pubis


  • 9

    Greater sciatic notch


  • 10

    Iliac crest


  • 11

    Iliopubic eminence


  • 12

    Inferior gluteal line


  • 13

    Inferior ramus of pubis


  • 14

    Ischial spine


  • 15

    Ischial tuberosity


  • 16

    Joint between 25 and 13


  • 17

    Lesser sciatic notch


  • 18

    Obturator crest


  • 19

    Obturator foramen


  • 20

    Obturator groove


  • 21

    Posterior gluteal line


  • 22

    Posterior inferior iliac spine


  • 23

    Posterior superior iliac spine


  • 24

    Pubic tubercle


  • 25

    Ramus of ischium


  • 26

    Rim of acetabulum


  • 27

    Superior ramus of pubis


  • 28

    Tubercle of iliac crest




The hip (innominate) bone is formed by the union of the ilium (6), ischium (7) and pubis (8).


The two hip bones articulate in the midline anteriorly at the pubic symphysis; posteriorly they are separated by the sacrum, forming the sacro-iliac joints. The two hip bones with the sacrum and coccyx constitute the pelvis (see page 96 ).





Left hip bone





  • attachments, lateral surface




Blue lines, epiphysial lines


Green lines, capsular attachment of hip joint


Pale green lines, ligament attachments



  • 1

    Adductor brevis


  • 2

    Adductor longus


  • 3

    Adductor magnus


  • 4

    External oblique


  • 5

    Gluteus maximus


  • 6

    Gluteus medius


  • 7

    Gluteus minimus


  • 8

    Gracilis


  • 9

    Iliofemoral ligament


  • 10

    Inguinal ligament


  • 11

    Ischiofemoral ligament


  • 12

    Obturator externus


  • 13

    Piriformis


  • 14

    Quadratus femoris


  • 15

    Reflected head of rectus femoris


  • 16

    Sartorius


  • 17

    Semimembranosus


  • 18

    Semitendinosus and long head of biceps femoris


  • 19

    Straight head of rectus femoris


  • 20

    Superior gemellus


  • 21

    Tensor fasciae latae


  • 22

    Transverse ligament





Left hip bone





  • medial surface






  • 1

    Anterior inferior iliac spine


  • 2

    Anterior superior iliac spine


  • 3

    Arcuate line


  • 4

    Auricular surface


  • 5

    Body of ischium


  • 6

    Body of pubis


  • 7

    Greater sciatic notch


  • 8

    Iliac crest


  • 9

    Iliac fossa


  • 10

    Iliac tuberosity


  • 11

    Iliopubic eminence


  • 12

    Ischial spine


  • 13

    Ischial tuberosity


  • 14

    Ischiopubic ramus


  • 15

    Lesser sciatic notch


  • 16

    Obturator foramen


  • 17

    Obturator groove


  • 18

    Pecten of pubis (pectineal line)


  • 19

    Posterior inferior iliac spine


  • 20

    Posterior superior iliac spine


  • 21

    Pubic crest


  • 22

    Pubic tubercle


  • 23

    Superior ramus of pubis




The auricular surface of the ilium (4) is the articular surface for the sacro-iliac joint.


The greater sciatic notch (7) is more hooked (J-shaped) in the male, whereas the female notch is more right-angled (L-shaped).





Left hip bone





  • attachments, medial surface




Blue lines, epiphysial lines


Green line, capsular attachment of sacro-iliac joint


Pale green lines, ligament attachments



  • 1

    Coccygeus and sacrospinous ligament


  • 2

    Erector spinae


  • 3

    Falciform process of sacrotuberous ligament


  • 4

    Iliacus


  • 5

    Iliolumbar ligament


  • 6

    Inferior gemellus


  • 7

    Inguinal ligament


  • 8

    Interosseous sacro-iliac ligament


  • 9

    Levator ani


  • 10

    Obturator internus


  • 11

    Psoas minor


  • 12

    Pubic symphysis


  • 13

    Quadratus lumborum


  • 14

    Sacrotuberous ligament


  • 15

    Sartorius


  • 16

    Sphincter urethrae


  • 17

    Straight head of rectus femoris


  • 18

    Superficial transverse perineal and ischiocavernosus


  • 19

    Transversus abdominis





Left hip bone





  • from above






  • 1

    Anterior inferior iliac spine


  • 2

    Anterior superior iliac spine


  • 3

    Arcuate line


  • 4

    Auricular surface


  • 5

    Iliac crest


  • 6

    Iliac fossa


  • 7

    Iliopubic eminence


  • 8

    Ischial spine


  • 9

    Pecten of pubis (pectineal line)


  • 10

    Posterior inferior iliac spine


  • 11

    Posterior superior iliac spine


  • 12

    Pubic crest


  • 13

    Pubic tubercle


  • 14

    Tubercle of iliac crest




The arcuate line on the ilium (3) and the pecten and crest of the pubis (9 and 12) form part of the brim of the pelvis (the rest of the brim being formed by the promontory and upper surface of the lateral part of the sacrum – see pages 94 and 96 ).


The pecten of the pubis (9) is more commonly called the pectineal line.





Left hip bone





  • attachments, from above




Blue lines, epiphysial lines


Green line, capsular attachment of sacro-iliac joint


Pale green lines, ligament attachments



  • 1

    Anterior wall of rectus sheath


  • 2

    Conjoint tendon


  • 3

    External oblique


  • 4

    Iliacus


  • 5

    Iliofemoral ligament


  • 6

    Iliolumbar ligament


  • 7

    Inguinal ligament


  • 8

    Internal oblique


  • 9

    Interosseous sacro-iliac ligament


  • 10

    Lacunar ligament


  • 11

    Lateral head of rectus abdominis


  • 12

    Medial head of rectus abdominis


  • 13

    Pectineal ligament


  • 14

    Pectineus


  • 15

    Psoas minor


  • 16

    Pyramidalis


  • 17

    Quadratus lumborum


  • 18

    Straight head of rectus femoris


  • 19

    Transversus abdominis




The inguinal ligament (7) is formed by the lower border of the aponeurosis of the external oblique muscle, and extends from the anterior superior iliac spine to the pubic tubercle.


The lacunar ligament (10, sometimes called the pectineal part of the inguinal ligament) is the part of the inguinal ligament that extends backwards from the medial end of the inguinal ligament to the pecten of the pubis.


The pectineal ligament (13) is the lateral extension of the lacunar ligament along the pecten. It is not classified as a part of the inguinal ligament, and must not be confused with the alternative name for the lacunar ligament, i.e. with the pectineal part of the inguinal ligament.


The conjoint tendon (2) is formed by the aponeuroses of the internal oblique and transversus muscles, and is attached to the pubic crest and the adjoining part of the pecten, blending medially with the anterior wall of the rectus sheath.






Left hip bone








  • ischial tuberosity, from behind and below



  • 1

    Acetabular notch


  • 2

    Acetabulum


  • 3

    Ischial spine


  • 4

    Ischiopubic ramus


  • 5

    Lesser sciatic notch


  • 6

    Longitudinal ridge


  • 7

    Lower part of tuberosity


  • 8

    Obturator groove


  • 9

    Rim of acetabulum


  • 10

    Transverse ridge


  • 11

    Upper part of tuberosity






Left hip bone





  • from the front



  • 1

    Acetabular notch


  • 2

    Anterior inferior iliac spine


  • 3

    Anterior superior iliac spine


  • 4

    Body of pubis


  • 5

    Iliac fossa


  • 6

    Iliopubic eminence


  • 7

    Ischial tuberosity


  • 8

    Ischiopubic ramus


  • 9

    Obturator crest


  • 10

    Obturator foramen


  • 11

    Obturator groove


  • 12

    Pecten of pubis (pectineal line)


  • 13

    Pubic crest


  • 14

    Pubic tubercle


  • 15

    Rim of acetabulum


  • 16

    Tubercle of iliac crest






Left hip bone





  • attachments, ischial tuberosity, from behind and below




Blue lines, epiphysial lines


Green line, capsular attachment of hip joint


Pale green lines, ligament attachments



  • 1

    Adductor magnus


  • 2

    Inferior gemellus


  • 3

    Ischiofemoral ligament


  • 4

    Semimembranosus


  • 5

    Semitendinosus and long head of biceps femoris


  • 6

    Superior gemellus




The area on the ischial tuberosity medial to the adductor magnus attachment (1) is covered by fibrofatty tissue and the ischial bursa underlying gluteus maximus.






Left hip bone





  • attachments, from the front

Blue lines, epiphysial lines


Green line, capsular attachment of hip joint


Pale green lines, ligament attachments



  • 1

    Adductor brevis


  • 2

    Adductor longus


  • 3

    Adductor magnus


  • 4

    Conjoint tendon


  • 5

    External oblique and inguinal ligament


  • 6

    Gracilis


  • 7

    Iliofemoral ligament


  • 8

    Inguinal ligament


  • 9

    Internal oblique


  • 10

    Lacunar ligament


  • 11

    Lateral head of rectus abdominis


  • 12

    Medial head of rectus abdominis


  • 13

    Obturator externus


  • 14

    Pectineal ligament


  • 15

    Pectineus


  • 16

    Psoas minor


  • 17

    Pubofemoral ligament


  • 18

    Pyramidalis


  • 19

    Quadratus femoris


  • 20

    Rectus sheath


  • 21

    Reflected head of rectus femoris


  • 22

    Sartorius


  • 23

    Semimembranosus


  • 24

    Straight head of rectus femoris


  • 25

    Transverse ligament


  • 26

    Transversus abdominis





Left femur





  • upper end






    • A

      from the front


    • B

      from the medial side




  • 1

    Fovea of head


  • 2

    Greater trochanter


  • 3

    Head


  • 4

    Intertrochanteric line


  • 5

    Lesser trochanter


  • 6

    Neck


  • 7

    Pectineal line


  • 8

    Quadrate tubercle on intertrochanteric crest


  • 9

    Shaft


  • 10

    Spiral line


  • 11

    Trochanteric fossa




The intertrochanteric line (4) is at the junction of the neck (6) and shaft (9) on the anterior surface; the intertrochanteric crest is in a similar position on the posterior surface (8, and page 304 , A5).


The neck makes an angle with the shaft of about 125° in an adult.


The pectineal line of the femur (7) must not be confused with the pectineal line (pecten) of the pubis (9, page 298 ), nor with the spiral line of the femur (10) which is usually more prominent than the pectineal line.






Avulsion fractures






Left femur





  • attachments, upper end



    • A

      from the front


    • B

      from the medial side





Blue lines, epiphysial lines


Green line, capsular attachment of hip joint


Pale green lines, ligament attachments



  • 1

    Gluteus medius


  • 2

    Gluteus minimus


  • 3

    Iliofemoral ligament


  • 4

    Ligament of head of femur


  • 5

    Obturator externus


  • 6

    Obturator internus and gemelli


  • 7

    Piriformis


  • 8

    Psoas major and iliacus


  • 9

    Quadratus femoris


  • 10

    Vastus intermedius


  • 11

    Vastus lateralis


  • 12

    Vastus medialis




The iliofemoral ligament has the shape of an inverted V, with the stem attached to the anterior inferior iliac spine of the hip bone ( page 301 , B7), and the lateral and medial bands attached to the upper (lateral) and lower (medial) ends of the intertrochanteric line ( page 304 , 6), blending with the capsule of the hip joint.


The tendon of psoas major is attached to the lesser trochanter ( page 304 , 8); many of the muscle fibres of iliacus are inserted into the psoas tendon but some reach the femur below the trochanter.






Intertrochanteric fracture – femur






Left femur





  • upper end






    • A

      from behind


    • B

      from the lateral side


    • C

      from above




  • 1

    Adductor tubercle at lower end


  • 2

    Gluteal tuberosity


  • 3

    Greater trochanter


  • 4

    Head


  • 5

    Intertrochanteric crest


  • 6

    Intertrochanteric line


  • 7

    Lateral condyle at lower end


  • 8

    Lesser trochanter


  • 9

    Linea aspera


  • 10

    Medial condyle at lower end


  • 11

    Neck


  • 12

    Quadrate tubercle


  • 13

    Spiral line


  • 14

    Trochanteric fossa




The neck of the femur passes forwards as well as upwards and medially (C11), making an angle of about 15° (in the adult) with the transverse axis of the lower end (the angle of femoral torsion or femoral anteversion).


The lesser trochanter (8) projects backwards and medially.






Fracture – femoral neck









  • A

    from behind


  • B

    from the lateral side


  • C

    from above

Blue lines, epiphysial lines


Green line, capsular attachment of hip joint


Pale green lines, ligament attachments



  • 1

    Adductor brevis


  • 2

    Adductor magnus


  • 3

    Gluteus maximus


  • 4

    Gluteus medius


  • 5

    Gluteus minimus


  • 6

    Iliofemoral ligament (lateral band)


  • 7

    Obturator externus


  • 8

    Obturator internus and gemelli


  • 9

    Pectineus


  • 10

    Piriformis


  • 11

    Psoas major and iliacus


  • 12

    Quadratus femoris


  • 13

    Vastus intermedius


  • 14

    Vastus lateralis


  • 15

    Vastus medialis




On the front of the femur ( page 303 ) the capsule of the hip joint is attached to the intertrochanteric line, but at the back the capsule is attached to the neck of the femur and does not extend as far laterally as the intertrochanteric crest ( page 304 , A5).






Exostoses femoral spurs







Left femur








  • shaft, from behind



  • 1

    Gluteal tuberosity


  • 2

    Lateral supracondylar line


  • 3

    Lesser trochanter


  • 4

    Linea aspera


  • 5

    Medial supracondylar line


  • 6

    Pectineal line




The rough linea aspera (4) often shows distinct medial and lateral lips; the lateral lip continues upwards as the gluteal tuberosity (1).






Left femur





  • attachments, shaft, from behind



  • 1

    Adductor brevis


  • 2

    Adductor longus


  • 3

    Adductor magnus


  • 4

    Gluteus maximus


  • 5

    Pectineus


  • 6

    Psoas major and iliacus


  • 7

    Quadratus femoris


  • 8

    Short head of biceps femoris


  • 9

    Vastus intermedius


  • 10

    Vastus lateralis


  • 11

    Vastus medialis




For diagrammatic clarity, the muscle attachments to the linea aspera have been slightly separated.






Left femur





  • upper end, from the front




This is the posterior half of a cleared and bisected specimen, to show the major groups of bone trabeculae.

  • 1

    Calcar femorale


  • 2

    From lateral surface of shaft to greater trochanter


  • 3

    From lateral surface of shaft to head


  • 4

    From medial surface of shaft to greater trochanter


  • 5

    From medial surface of shaft to head


  • 6

    Triangular area of few trabeculae




The calcar femorale (1) is a dense concentration of trabeculae passing from the region of the lesser trochanter to the under-surface of the neck.






Fracture – femoral shaft






Left patella







  • A

    anterior surface


  • B

    articular (posterior) surface



  • 1

    Apex


  • 2

    Base


  • 3

    Facet for lateral condyle of femur


  • 4

    Facet for medial condyle of femur


  • 5

    Vertical ridge





Left patella





  • attachments



    • C

      anterior surface


    • D

      articular (posterior) surface


Pale green line, ligament attachment

  • 1

    Area for infrapatellar fat pad


  • 2

    Area for medial condyle in extreme flexion


  • 3

    Facets for femur in extension


  • 4

    Facets for femur in flexion


  • 5

    Patellar ligament


  • 6

    Rectus femoris of quadriceps tendon


  • 7

    Vastus intermedius of quadriceps tendon


  • 8

    Vastus lateralis of quadriceps tendon


  • 9

    Vastus medialis of quadriceps tendon





Left femur and patella





  • articulated



    • E

      from below with knee extended


    • F

      from below and behind with knee flexed


In flexion, note the increased area of contact between the medial condyle of the femur (2) and the patella.

  • 1

    Lateral condyle


  • 2

    Medial condyle




The most medial facet of the patella (D2) only comes into contact with the medial condyle in extreme flexion as in F.






Bipartite patella





Dislocation of the patella





Patellar fracture






Left femur





  • lower end






    • A

      from the front


    • B

      from behind


    • C

      from the medial side


    • D

      from the lateral side




  • 1

    Adductor tubercle


  • 2

    Groove for popliteus tendon


  • 3

    Impression for lateral head of gastrocnemius


  • 4

    Intercondylar fossa


  • 5

    Lateral condyle


  • 6

    Lateral epicondyle


  • 7

    Lateral supracondylar line


  • 8

    Medial condyle


  • 9

    Medial epicondyle


  • 10

    Medial supracondylar line


  • 11

    Patellar surface


  • 12

    Popliteal surface








  • A

    from the front


  • B

    from behind


  • C

    from the medial side


  • D

    from the lateral side

Blue lines, epiphysial lines


Green line, capsular attachment of knee joint


Pale green lines, ligament attachments



  • 1

    Adductor magnus


  • 2

    Anterior cruciate ligament


  • 3

    Articularis genu


  • 4

    Fibular collateral ligament


  • 5

    Lateral head of gastrocnemius


  • 6

    Medial head of gastrocnemius


  • 7

    Plantaris


  • 8

    Popliteus


  • 9

    Posterior cruciate ligament


  • 10

    Short head of biceps femoris


  • 11

    Tibial (medial) collateral ligament


  • 12

    Vastus intermedius


  • 13

    Vastus medialis





Left tibia





  • upper end






    • A

      from the front


    • B

      from behind




  • 1

    Anterior border


  • 2

    Articular facet for fibula


  • 3

    Groove for semimembranosus


  • 4

    Impression for iliotibial tract


  • 5

    Interosseous border


  • 6

    Lateral condyle


  • 7

    Lateral surface


  • 8

    Medial border


  • 9

    Medial condyle


  • 10

    Medial surface


  • 11

    Posterior surface


  • 12

    Soleal line


  • 13

    Tubercles of intercondylar eminence


  • 14

    Tuberosity


  • 15

    Vertical line




The shaft of the tibia has three borders: anterior (1), medial (8) and interosseous (5) – and three surfaces: medial (10), lateral (7) and posterior (11).


Much of the anterior border (1) forms a slightly curved crest commonly known as the shin. Most of the smooth medial surface (10) is subcutaneous. The posterior surface contains the soleal and vertical lines (12 and 15).


The tuberosity (14) is at the upper end of the anterior border.





Left tibia





  • attachments, upper end






    • A

      from the front


    • B

      from behind


Blue lines, epiphysial lines


Green line, capsular attachment of knee joint


Pale green lines, ligament attachments



  • 1

    Flexor digitorum longus


  • 2

    Gracilis


  • 3

    Iliotibial tract


  • 4

    Patellar ligament


  • 5

    Popliteus


  • 6

    Posterior cruciate ligament


  • 7

    Sartorius


  • 8

    Semimembranosus


  • 9

    Semitendinosus


  • 10

    Soleus


  • 11

    Tibial (medial) collateral ligament


  • 12

    Tibialis anterior


  • 13

    Tibialis posterior


  • 14

    Vastus medialis






INTEROSSEOUS MEMBRANE – TIBIA – FIBULA



  • 1

    Anterior border of fibula


  • 2

    Anterior border of tibia


  • 3

    Biceps femoris tendon


  • 4

    Fibula


  • 5

    Fibular (lateral) collateral ligament


  • 6

    Gerdy’s tubercle


  • 7

    Iliotibial tract


  • 8

    Inferior articular surface


  • 9

    Interosseous membrane


  • 10

    Lateral malleolus


  • 11

    Lateral surface of fibula


  • 12

    Lateral surface of tibia


  • 13

    Medial (deltoid) ligament of ankle


  • 14

    Medial condyle


  • 15

    Medial malleolus


  • 16

    Medial surface of tibia


  • 17

    Neck of fibula


  • 18

    Patellar ligament


  • 19

    Tibia


  • 20

    Tibial (medial) collateral ligament


  • 21

    Tibial tuberosity





Left tibia





  • upper end






    • A

      from the medial side


    • B

      from the lateral side


    • C

      from above




  • 1

    Anterior border


  • 2

    Anterior intercondylar area


  • 3

    Articular facet for fibula


  • 4

    Groove for semimembranosus


  • 5

    Interosseous border


  • 6

    Lateral condyle


  • 7

    Lateral surface


  • 8

    Medial border


  • 9

    Medial condyle


  • 10

    Medial surface


  • 11

    Posterior intercondylar area


  • 12

    Posterior surface


  • 13

    Soleal line


  • 14

    Tubercles of intercondylar eminence


  • 15

    Tuberosity




The medial condyle (C9) is larger than the lateral condyle (C6).


The articular facet for the fibula is on the postero-inferior aspect of the lateral condyle (B3).






Osgood–Schlatter’s disease






Left tibia





  • attachments, upper end






    • A

      from the medial side


    • B

      from the lateral side


    • C

      from above


Blue lines, epiphysial lines


Green lines, capsular attachments of knee joint and superior tibiofibular joint


Pale green lines, ligament attachments



  • 1

    Anterior cruciate ligament


  • 2

    Anterior horn of lateral meniscus


  • 3

    Anterior horn of medial meniscus


  • 4

    Extensor digitorum longus


  • 5

    Gracilis


  • 6

    Iliotibial tract


  • 7

    Interosseous membrane


  • 8

    Patellar ligament


  • 9

    Peroneus (fibularis) longus


  • 10

    Popliteus


  • 11

    Posterior cruciate ligament


  • 12

    Posterior horn of lateral meniscus


  • 13

    Posterior horn of medial meniscus


  • 14

    Sartorius


  • 15

    Semimembranosus


  • 16

    Semitendinosus


  • 17

    Soleus


  • 18

    Tibial (medial) collateral ligament


  • 19

    Tibialis anterior


  • 20

    Tibialis posterior


  • 21

    Vastus medialis





Left tibia








  • lower end





Left tibia





  • attachments, lower end



    • A

      from the front


    • B

      from behind


    • C

      from the medial side


    • D

      from the lateral side


    • E

      from the front


    • F

      from behind


    • G

      from the medial side


    • H

      from the lateral side


Blue line, epiphysial line


Green line, capsular attachment of ankle joint


Pale green lines, ligament attachment



  • 1

    Anterior surface


  • 2

    Fibular notch


  • 3

    Groove for flexor hallucis longus


  • 4

    Groove for tibialis posterior


  • 5

    Interosseous border


  • 6

    Medial malleolus


  • 7

    Medial surface


  • 8

    Posterior surface



  • 1

    Inferior transverse ligament


  • 2

    Interosseous ligament


  • 3

    Interosseous membrane


  • 4

    Medial collateral ligament


  • 5

    Posterior tibiofibular ligament




The medial collateral ligament (G4) is commonly known as the deltoid ligament.






Tibial fractures






Left tibia and fibula





  • articulated






    • A

      proximal ends from behind


    • B

      proximal ends from above


    • C

      proximal end of fibula from above


    • D

      distal ends from behind


    • E

      distal ends from below




  • 1

    Apex of head (styloid process)


  • 2

    Articular facet (for superior tibiofibular joint)


  • 3

    Articular facet of lateral malleolus (for ankle joint)


  • 4

    Head of fibula


  • 5

    Inferior surface of tibia (for ankle joint)


  • 6

    Inferior tibiofibular joint


  • 7

    Lateral (articular) surface of medial malleolus (for ankle joint)


  • 8

    Lateral condyle of tibia


  • 9

    Lateral malleolus


  • 10

    Malleolar fossa


  • 11

    Medial malleolus


  • 12

    Superior tibiofibular joint




The superior tibiofibular joint (A12) is synovial.


The inferior tibiofibular joint (D6) is fibrous.


The lateral malleolus (D9) extends lower than the medial malleolus (D11).






Tarsal dislocations






Left fibula








  • proximal end



    • A

      from the front


    • B

      from behind


    • C

      from the medial side


    • D

      from the lateral side




  • 1

    Anterior border


  • 2

    Apex (styloid process)


  • 3

    Articular facet on upper surface


  • 4

    Head


  • 5

    Interosseous border


  • 6

    Lateral surface


  • 7

    Medial crest


  • 8

    Medial surface


  • 9

    Neck


  • 10

    Posterior border


  • 11

    Posterior surface




The fibula has three borders: anterior (A1), interosseous (A5) and posterior (B10) – and three surfaces: medial (A8), lateral (A6) and posterior (B11).


At first sight, much of the shaft appears to have four borders and four surfaces, but this is because the posterior surface (B11) is divided into two parts (medial and lateral) by the medial crest (B7).





Left fibula





  • distal end



    • E

      from the front


    • F

      from behind


    • G

      from the medial side


    • H

      from the lateral side




  • 1

    Anterior border


  • 2

    Articular surface of lateral malleolus


  • 3

    Groove for peroneus (fibularis) brevis


  • 4

    Interosseous border


  • 5

    Lateral malleolus


  • 6

    Lateral surface


  • 7

    Malleolar fossa


  • 8

    Medial crest


  • 9

    Medial surface


  • 10

    Posterior border


  • 11

    Posterior surface


  • 12

    Surface for interosseous ligament


  • 13

    Triangular subcutaneous area





Left fibula





  • attachments, proximal end






    • A

      from the front


    • B

      from behind


    • C

      from the medial side


    • D

      from the lateral side


Blue line, epiphysial line


Green line, capsular attachment of superior tibiofibular joint


Pale green lines, ligament attachments



  • 1

    Biceps femoris


  • 2

    Extensor digitorum longus


  • 3

    Extensor hallucis longus


  • 4

    Fibular collateral ligament


  • 5

    Flexor hallucis longus


  • 6

    Interosseous membrane


  • 7

    Peroneus (fibularis) brevis


  • 8

    Peroneus (fibularis) longus


  • 9

    Soleus


  • 10

    Tibialis posterior





Left fibula





  • attachments, distal end



    • E

      from the front


    • F

      from behind


    • G

      from the medial side


    • H

      from the lateral side


Blue line, epiphysial line


Green line, capsular attachment of ankle joint


Pale green lines, ligament attachments



  • 1

    Anterior talofibular ligament


  • 2

    Calcaneofibular ligament


  • 3

    Extensor digitorum longus


  • 4

    Extensor hallucis longus


  • 5

    Flexor hallucis longus


  • 6

    Interosseous ligament


  • 7

    Interosseous membrane


  • 8

    Peroneus (fibularis) brevis


  • 9

    Peroneus (fibularis) tertius


  • 10

    Posterior talofibular ligament


  • 11

    Posterior tibiofibular ligament


  • 12

    Tibialis posterior





Bones of the left foot







  • A

    from above (dorsum)


  • B

    from below (plantar surface)



  • 1

    Anterior tubercle of calcaneus


  • 2

    Base of fifth metatarsal


  • 3

    Base of first metatarsal


  • 4

    Calcaneus


  • 5

    Cuboid


  • 6

    Distal phalanx of great toe


  • 7

    Distal phalanx of second toe


  • 8

    Groove on calcaneus for flexor hallucis longus


  • 9

    Groove on cuboid for peroneus (fibularis) longus


  • 10

    Groove on talus for flexor hallucis longus


  • 11

    Grooves for sesamoid bones in flexor hallucis brevis


  • 12

    Head of fifth metatarsal


  • 13

    Head of first metatarsal


  • 14

    Head of talus


  • 15

    Intermediate cuneiform


  • 16

    Lateral cuneiform


  • 17

    Lateral process of calcaneus


  • 18

    Lateral tubercle of talus


  • 19

    Medial cuneiform


  • 20

    Medial process of calcaneus


  • 21

    Medial tubercle of talus


  • 22

    Middle phalanx of second toe


  • 23

    Navicular


  • 24

    Neck of talus


  • 25

    Proximal phalanx of great toe


  • 26

    Proximal phalanx of second toe


  • 27

    Shaft of fifth metatarsal


  • 28

    Shaft of first metatarsal


  • 29

    Sustentaculum tali of calcaneus


  • 30

    Trochlear surface of body of talus


  • 31

    Tuberosity of base of fifth metatarsal


  • 32

    Tuberosity of cuboid


  • 33

    Tuberosity of navicular






Dislocation of the toe





Hallux valgus






Bones of the left foot





  • attachments






    • A

      from above


    • B

      from below


Joint capsules and minor ligaments have been omitted.


Pale green lines, ligament attachments



  • 1

    Abductor digiti minimi


  • 2

    Abductor hallucis


  • 3

    Adductor hallucis


  • 4

    Calcaneocuboid part of bifurcate ligament


  • 5

    Calcaneonavicular part of bifurcate ligament


  • 6

    Extensor digitorum brevis


  • 7

    Extensor digitorum longus


  • 8

    Extensor digitorum longus and brevis


  • 9

    Extensor hallucis brevis


  • 10

    Extensor hallucis longus


  • 11

    First dorsal interosseous


  • 12

    First plantar interosseous


  • 13

    Flexor accessorius (quadratus plantae)


  • 14

    Flexor digiti minimi brevis


  • 15

    Flexor digitorum brevis


  • 16

    Flexor digitorum longus


  • 17

    Flexor hallucis brevis


  • 18

    Flexor hallucis longus


  • 19

    Fourth dorsal interosseous


  • 20

    Long plantar ligament


  • 21

    Opponens digiti minimi (part of 14)


  • 22

    Peroneus (fibularis) brevis


  • 23

    Peroneus (fibularis) longus


  • 24

    Peroneus (fibularis) tertius


  • 25

    Plantar calcaneocuboid (short plantar) ligament


  • 26

    Plantar calcaneonavicular (spring) ligament


  • 27

    Plantaris


  • 28

    Second dorsal interosseous


  • 29

    Second plantar interosseous


  • 30

    Tendo calcaneus (Achilles tendon)


  • 31

    Third dorsal interosseous


  • 32

    Third plantar interosseous


  • 33

    Tibialis anterior


  • 34

    Tibialis posterior






Hallux sesamoid fracture





Metatarsal fractures






Bones of the left foot







  • A

    from the medial side


  • B

    from the lateral side



  • 1

    Anterior tubercle of calcaneus


  • 2

    Cuboid


  • 3

    First metatarsal


  • 4

    Head of talus


  • 5

    Intermediate cuneiform


  • 6

    Lateral cuneiform


  • 7

    Lateral malleolar surface of talus


  • 8

    Lateral process of calcaneus


  • 9

    Lateral tubercle of talus


  • 10

    Medial cuneiform


  • 11

    Medial malleolar surface of talus


  • 12

    Medial process of calcaneus


  • 13

    Medial surface of calcaneus


  • 14

    Medial tubercle of talus


  • 15

    Navicular


  • 16

    Neck of talus


  • 17

    Peroneal (fibular) trochlea of calcaneus


  • 18

    Sustentaculum tali of calcaneus


  • 19

    Tarsal sinus


  • 20

    Tuberosity of base of fifth metatarsal


  • 21

    Tuberosity of navicular






Calcaneal fracture





Hammer toe





Os trigonum






Bones of the left foot








  • Left calcaneus



    • A

      from above


    • B

      from behind




  • Left talus



    • C

      from below




  • 1

    Anterior calcanean articular surface of talus


  • 2

    Anterior talar articular surface of calcaneus


  • 3

    Groove of calcaneus for flexor hallucis longus


  • 4

    Groove of talus for flexor hallucis longus


  • 5

    Head of talus


  • 6

    Medial process of calcaneus


  • 7

    Middle calcanean articular surface of talus


  • 8

    Middle talar articular surface of calcaneus


  • 9

    Posterior calcanean articular surface of talus


  • 10

    Posterior surface of calcaneus


  • 11

    Posterior talar articular surface of calcaneus


  • 12

    Sulcus of calcaneus


  • 13

    Sulcus of talus


  • 14

    Surface of talus for plantar calcaneonavicular (spring) ligament


  • 15

    Sustentaculum tali of calcaneus




  • Left calcaneus, attachments



    • D

      from above


    • E

      from behind




  • Left talus, attachments



    • F

      from below


Curved lines indicate corresponding articular surfaces: green, capsular attachment of talocalcanean (subtalar) and talocalcaneonavicular joints; pale green lines, ligament attachments

  • 1

    Area for bursa


  • 2

    Area for fibrofatty tissue


  • 3

    Calcaneocuboid part of bifurcate ligament


  • 4

    Calcaneofibular ligament


  • 5

    Calcaneonavicular part of bifurcate ligament


  • 6

    Cervical ligament


  • 7

    Extensor digitorum brevis


  • 8

    Inferior extensor retinaculum


  • 9

    Interosseous talocalcanean (cervical) ligament


  • 10

    Lateral talocalcanean ligament


  • 11

    Medial talocalcanean ligament


  • 12

    Plantaris


  • 13

    Tendocalcaneus (Achilles tendon)


  • 14

    Tibiocalcanean part of deltoid ligament




The interosseous talocalcanean (cervical) ligament (9) is formed by thickening of the adjacent capsules of the talocalcanean and talocalcaneonavicular joints.


For different interpretations of the term ‘subtalar joint’ see the notes on page 358 .

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Nov 8, 2019 | Posted by in GENERAL & FAMILY MEDICINE | Comments Off on Lower limb
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