Cytokine and Subunits Principal Cell Source Cytokine Receptor and Subunits Principal Cellular Targets and Biologic Effects
Type I Cytokine Family Members
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) T cells CD25 (IL-2Rα)
CD122 (IL-2Rβ)
CD132 (γc)
T cells: proliferation and differentiation into effector and memory cells; promotes regulatory T cell development, survival, and function
NK cells: proliferation, activation
Interleukin-3 (IL-3) T cells CD123 (IL-3Rα)
CD131 (βc)
Immature hematopoietic progenitors: maturation of all hematopoietic lineages
Interleukin-4 (IL-4) CD4 + T cells (Th2, Tfh), mast cells CD124 (IL-4Rα)
CD132 (γc)
B cells: isotype switching to IgE, IgG4 (in humans; IgG1 in mice)
T cells: Th2 differentiation, proliferation
Macrophages: alternative activation and inhibition of IFN-γ–mediated classical activation
Interleukin-5 (IL-5) CD4 + T cells (Th2), group 2 ILCs CD125 (IL-5Rα)
CD131 (βc)
Eosinophils: activation, increased generation
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) Macrophages, endothelial cells, T cells CD126 (IL-6Rα)
CD130 (gp130)
Liver: synthesis of acute phase protein
B cells: proliferation of antibody-producing cells
T cells: Th17 differentiation
Interleukin-7 (IL-7) Fibroblasts, bone marrow stromal cells CD127 (IL-7R)
CD132 (γc)
Immature lymphoid progenitors: proliferation of early T and B cell progenitors
T lymphocytes: survival of naive and memory cells
Interleukin-9 (IL-9) CD4 + T cells CD129 (IL-9R)
CD132 (γc)
Mast cells, B cells, T cells, and epithelial cells: survival and activation
Interleukin-11 (IL-11) Bone marrow stromal cells IL-11Rα
CD130 (gp130)
Production of platelets
Interleukin-12 (IL-12):
IL-12A (p35)
IL-12B (p40)
Macrophages, dendritic cells CD212 (IL-12Rβ1)
T cells: Th1 differentiation
NK cells and T cells: IFN-γ synthesis, increased cytotoxic activity
Interleukin-13 (IL-13) CD4 + T cells (Th2), NKT cells, group 2 ILCs, mast cells CD213a1 (IL-13Rα1)
CD213a2 (IL-13Rα2)
CD132 (γc)
B cells: isotype switching to IgE
Epithelial cells: increased mucus production
Macrophages: alternative activation
Interleukin-15 (IL-15) Macrophages, other cell types IL-15Rα
CD122 (IL-2Rβ)
CD132 (γc)
NK cells: proliferation
T cells: survival and proliferation of memory CD8 + cells
Interleukin-17A (IL-17A)
Interleukin-17F (IL-17F)
CD4 + T cells (Th17), group 3 ILCs CD217 (IL-17RA)
Epithelial cells, macrophages and other cell types: increased chemokine and cytokine production; GM-CSF and G-CSF production
Interleukin-21 (IL-21) Tfh cells CD360 (IL-21R)
CD132 (γc)
B cells: activation, proliferation, differentiation
Interleukin-23 (IL-23):
IL-23A (p19)
IL-12B (p40)
Macrophages, dendritic cells IL-23R
CD212 (IL-12Rβ1)
T cells: differentiation and proliferation of Th17 cells
Interleukin-25 (IL-25; IL-17E) T cells, mast cells, eosinophils, macrophages, mucosal epithelial cells IL-17RB T cells and various other cell types: expression of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13
Interleukin-27 (IL-27):
IL-27 (p28), EBI-3
Macrophages, dendritic cells IL-27Rα
CD130 (gp130)
T cells: enhancement of Th1 differentiation; inhibition of Th17 differentiation
NK cells: IFN-γ synthesis?
Interleukin 35 (IL-35) Treg IL-12Rβ2
CD130 (gp130)
T cells: inhibits proliferation
Stem cell factor (c-Kit ligand) Bone marrow stromal cells CD117 (KIT) Pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells: maturation of all hematopoietic lineages
Granulocyte-monocyte CSF (GM-CSF) T cells, macrophages, endothelial cells, fibroblasts CD116 (GM-CSFRα)
CD131 (βc)
Immature and committed progenitors, mature macrophages: maturation of granulocytes and monocytes, macrophage activation
Monocyte CSF (M-CSF, CSF1) Macrophages, endothelial cells, bone marrow cells, fibroblasts CD115 (CSF1R) Committed hematopoietic progenitors: maturation of monocytes
Granulocyte CSF (G-CSF, CSF3) Macrophages, fibroblasts, endothelial cells CD114 (CSF3R) Committed hematopoietic progenitors: maturation of granulocytes
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) Keratinocytes, bronchial epithelial cells, fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, mast cells, macrophages, granulocytes and dendritic cells TSLP-receptor
CD127 (IL-7R)
Dendritic cells: activation
Eosinophils: activation
Mast cells: cytokine production
T cells: Th2 differentiation
Type II Cytokine Family Members
Interferon-α (IFN-α) (multiple proteins) Plasmacytoid dendritic cells, macrophages IFNAR1
CD118 (IFNAR2)
All cells: antiviral state, increased class I MHC expression
NK cells: activation
Interferon-β (IFN-β) Fibroblasts, plasmacytoid dendritic cells IFNAR1
CD118 (IFNAR2)
All cells: antiviral state, increased class I MHC expression
NK cells: activation
Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) T cells (Th1, CD8 + T cells), NK cells, group 1 ILCs CD119 (IFNGR1)
Macrophages: classical activation (increased microbicidal functions)
B cells: isotype switching to opsonizing and complement-fixing IgG subclasses (established in mice, not humans)
T cells: Th1 differentiation
Various cells: increased expression of class I and class II MHC molecules, increased antigen processing and presentation to T cells
Interleukin-10 (IL-10) Macrophages, T cells (mainly regulatory T cells) CD210 (IL-10Rα)
Macrophages, dendritic cells: inhibition of expression of IL-12, costimulators, and class II MHC
Interleukin-22 (IL-22) Th17 cells IL-22Rα1 or IL-22Rα2
Epithelial cells: production of defensins, increased barrier function
Hepatocytes: survival
Interleukin-26 (IL-26) T cells, monocytes IL-20R1IL-10R2 Not established
Interferon-λs (type III interferons) Dendritic cells IFNLR1 (IL-28Rα)
CD210B (IL-10Rβ2)
Epithelial cells: antiviral state
Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) Embryonic trophectoderm, bone marrow stromal cells CD118 (LIFR)
CD130 (gp130)
Stem cells: block in differentiation
Oncostatin M Bone marrow stromal cells OSMR
CD130 (gp130)
Endothelial cells: regulation of hematopoietic cytokine production
Cancer cells: inhibition of proliferation
TNF Superfamily Cytokines
APRIL (CD256, TNFSF13) T cells, dendritic cells, monocytes, follicular dendritic cells TACI (TNFRSF13B) or BCMA (TNFRSF17) B cells: survival, proliferation
BAFF (CD257, TNFSF13B) Dendritic cells, monocytes, follicular dendritic cells, B cells BAFF-R (TNFRSF13C) or TACI (TNFRSF13B) or BCMA (TNFRSF17) B cells: survival, proliferation
Lymphotoxin-α (LTα, TNFSF1) T cells, B cells CD120a (TNFRSF1) or CD120b (TNFRSF2) Same as TNF
Lymphotoxin-αβ (LTαβ) T cells, NK cells, follicular B cells, lymphoid inducer cells LTβR Lymphoid tissue stromal cells and follicular dendritic cells: chemokine expression and lymphoid organogenesis
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, TNFSF1) Macrophages, NK cells, T cells CD120a (TNFRSF1) or CD120b (TNFRSF2) Endothelial cells: activation (inflammation, coagulation)
Neutrophils: activation
Hypothalamus: fever
Muscle, fat: catabolism (cachexia)
Osteoprotegerin (OPG, TNFRSF11B) Osteoblasts RANKL Osteoclast precursor cells: inhibits osteoclast differentiation
IL-1 Family Cytokines
Interleukin-1α (IL-1α) Macrophages, dendritic cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, keratinocytes, hepatocytes CD121a (IL-1R1)
IL-1RAP or CD121b (IL-1R2)
Endothelial cells: activation (inflammation, coagulation)
Hypothalamus: fever
Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) Macrophages, dendritic cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, keratinocytes CD121a (IL-1R1)
IL-1RAP or CD121b (IL-1R2)
Endothelial cells: activation (inflammation, coagulation)
Hypothalamus: fever
Liver: synthesis of acute-phase proteins
T cells: Th17 differentiation
Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) Macrophages CD121a (IL-1R1)
Various cells: competitive antagonist of IL-1
Interleukin-18 (IL-18) Monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, Kupffer cells, keratinocytes, chondrocytes, synovial fibroblasts, osteoblasts CD218a (IL-18Rα)
CD218b (IL-18Rβ)
NK cells and T cells: IFN-γ synthesis
Monocytes: expression of GM-CSF, TNF, IL-1β
Neutrophils: activation, cytokine release
Interleukin-33 (IL-33) Endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, keratinocytes, fibroblasts ST2 (IL1RL1)
IL-1 Receptor Accessory Protein (IL1RAP)
T cells: Th2 development
ILCs: activation of group 2 ILCs
Other Cytokines
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) T cells (mainly Tregs), macrophages, other cell types TGF-β R1
TGF-β R2
TGF-β R3
T cells: inhibition of proliferation and effector functions; differentiation of Th17 and Treg
B cells: inhibition of proliferation; IgA production
Macrophages: inhibition of activation; stimulation of angiogenic factors
Fibroblasts: increased collagen synthesis

Only gold members can continue reading. Log In or Register to continue

Stay updated, free articles. Join our Telegram channel

Nov 8, 2019 | Posted by in GENERAL SURGERY | Comments Off on Cytokines

Full access? Get Clinical Tree

Get Clinical Tree app for offline access