Candidiasis



Candidiasis


Irina Margaritescu, MD, DipRCPath

Bruce R. Smoller, MD










Red, moist, glistening, macerated papules and plaques image and satellite pustules image located in a submammary fold are typical for candidal intertrigo.






Biopsy taken from a satellite pustule shows a subcorneal and intraepidermal pustular dermatitis. Similar findings can be seen in psoriasis and dermatophytosis.


TERMINOLOGY


Synonyms



  • Candidiasis


  • Moniliasis


  • Thrush


  • Oidiomycosis


Definitions



  • Common superficial infection of skin and mucous membranes caused by yeasts of genus Candida


ETIOLOGY/PATHOGENESIS


Infectious Agents



  • C. albicans is the predominant causal organism of most candidal infections



    • Oval yeast 2-6 by 3-9 µm in size


    • Produce budding cells, pseudohyphae, and true hyphae


  • Other species, including C. krusei, C. glabrata, C. dubliniensis, and C. inconspicua isolated from severely immunocompromised patients


Pathogenesis



  • C. albicans is not a normal cutaneous saprophyte but usually colonizes oropharynx, gastrointestinal tract, and vagina


  • Alteration in host defenses, either localized or generalized, allows organism to become pathogenic



    • Factors predisposing to infection include



      • Mechanical factors (trauma, occlusion)


      • Nutritional factors (iron deficiency, malnutrition)


      • Physiologic alteration (menses, pregnancy)


      • Systemic illnesses (diabetes mellitus, malignancy, uremia, immunodeficiency states)


      • Iatrogenic causes (antibiotics, steroids)


    • Virulence factors include surface adhesion molecules and proteinase enzymes


CLINICAL ISSUES


Epidemiology



  • Incidence



    • Common in groups at risk (immunocompromised patients)


  • Age



    • Any age


  • Gender



    • Both sexes


Presentation



  • Various mucosal and cutaneous manifestations


  • Oral candidiasis may appear in acute or chronic forms

Jul 8, 2016 | Posted by in PATHOLOGY & LABORATORY MEDICINE | Comments Off on Candidiasis
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